I>Demodex injai : A New Species of Hair Follicle Mite (Acari: Demodecidae) from the Domestic Dog (Canidae)

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, United States
Journal of Medical Entomology (Impact Factor: 1.95). 04/2003; 40(2):146-9. DOI: 10.1603/0022-2585-40.2.146
Source: PubMed


Demondex injai sp. nov. is described from the hair follicles of a domestic dog in Columbus, OH in October 1996. The mites occupy follicles from the orifice down to and into the sebaceous glands. The individual host may harbor both this new species and D. canis. A comparison of these two species is provided for identification purposes.

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    • "In none of the samples both mite species (D. canis and D. injai) were simultaneously detected. Both D. canis and D. injai mites were identified microscopically, after measuring the gnathosoma, podosoma, and opisthosoma, according to the original descriptions (Nutting and Desch 1978; Desch and Hillier 2003). Hair samples and skin scrapings were conserved in physiological saline solution and stored at −20 °C until DNA extraction. "
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of Demodex injai as a second Demodex species of dog opened new questions and challenges in the understanding on the Demodex-host relationships. In this paper, we describe the development of a conventional PCR technique based on published genome sequences of D. injai from GenBank that specifically detects DNA from D. injai. This technique amplifies a 238-bp fragment corresponding to a region of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA of D. injai. The PCR was positive in DNA samples obtained from mites identified morphologically as D. injai, which served as positive controls, as well as in samples from three cases of demodicosis associated with proliferation of mites identified as D. injai. Furthermore, the PCR was positive in 2 out of 19 healthy dogs. Samples of Demodex canis and Demodex folliculorum were consistently negative. Skin samples from seven dogs with generalized demodicosis caused by D. canis were all negative in the D. injai-specific PCR, demonstrating that in generalized canine demodicosis, mite proliferation is species-specific. This technique can be a useful tool in the diagnosis and in epidemiologic and pathogenic studies.
    Parasitology Research 07/2013; 112(9). DOI:10.1007/s00436-013-3531-z · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    • "Clinically, the most common is Demodex canis which are located in the hair follicle, sebaceous duct, and sebaceous gland (Scott et al. 2001). Demodex injai which lives in the hair follicle and inside the sebaceous gland (Desch and Hillier 2003) are associated with truncal seborrhea oleosa and alopecia (Mueller and Bettney 1999; Hillier and Desch 2002). Finally, a short form of Demodex mite that has tentatively been named Demodex cornei (Shipstone 2000), and which we call Demodex sp. "
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    ABSTRACT: Canine demodicosis is a severe and highly prevalent dermatologic disease in dogs. Pet dogs can be affected by three recognized Demodex species that can produce clinical effects. In this paper, three morphological types of Demodex mites have been isolated from Spanish dogs. A complete morphobiometrical study of each one has been carried out. Morphological and biometrical studies revealed three closely related populations with some distinctive characteristics and could be identified as Demodex canis, Demodex injai, and Demodex sp. "cornei." Furthermore, one population of D. canis from China, different populations of Demodex folliculorum from human skin (Spain and China), D. folliculorum from human eyelashes (Spain), and Demodex brevis from human skin (China) were considered to find out the level of variation between different species and geographical origin. The aim of the present study is to assess the usefulness of mitochondrial DNA molecular markers in establishing phylogenetic relationships and resolve taxonomic questions in Demodex mites. Molecular studies based on the amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial genes did not show clear differences between the three morphotypes considered. Furthermore, phylogenetic relationships in Demodex mites were analyzed. The resulting phylogenetic trees show that Demodex species from dogs were gathered together, and populations of D. folliculorum from humans appear together in a different branch; however, D. brevis from humans seemed to be more distant. Our results show that cytochrome oxidase I region is a useful tool to solve different taxonomic questions at the species and population level and to infer phylogenetic relationships in Demodex species. However, 16S mitochondrial rDNA seems a good marker for comparisons at an interspecies level, but not at a population level in this group of mites. Furthermore, from genetic distance and divergence data, we would suggest that D. canis, D. injai, and Demodex sp. cornei are polymorphisms of the same species.
    Parasitology Research 08/2012; 111(5):2165-72. DOI:10.1007/s00436-012-3067-7 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    • "Under normal conditions, it does not cause skin disorders. However, D. folliculorum increases in number (Lee 1987; Hsu et al. 1992; Desch and Hillier 2003) when immunity is weakened or suppressed. Apart from size differences it is hard to distinguish different species. "
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    ABSTRACT: Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3.
    Journal of Insect Science 06/2011; 11(76):76. DOI:10.1673/031.011.7601 · 1.03 Impact Factor
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