Fusiform gyrus volume reduction and facial recognition in chronic schizophrenia.

Clinical Neuroscience Division, Laboratory of Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, Boston VA Healthcare System, Brockton, MA 02301, USA.
Archives of General Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 13.75). 05/2003; 60(4):349-55. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.60.4.349
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The fusiform gyrus (FG), or occipitotemporal gyrus, is thought to subserve the processing and encoding of faces. Of note, several studies have reported that patients with schizophrenia show deficits in facial processing. It is thus hypothesized that the FG might be one brain region underlying abnormal facial recognition in schizophrenia. The objectives of this study were to determine whether there are abnormalities in gray matter volumes for the anterior and the posterior FG in patients with chronic schizophrenia and to investigate relationships between FG subregions and immediate and delayed memory for faces.
Patients were recruited from the Boston VA Healthcare System, Brockton Division, and control subjects were recruited through newspaper advertisement. Study participants included 21 male patients diagnosed as having chronic schizophrenia and 28 male controls. Participants underwent high-spatial-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, and facial recognition memory was evaluated. Main outcome measures included anterior and posterior FG gray matter volumes based on high-spatial-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, a detailed and reliable manual delineation using 3-dimensional information, and correlation coefficients between FG subregions and raw scores on immediate and delayed facial memory derived from the Wechsler Memory Scale III.
Patients with chronic schizophrenia had overall smaller FG gray matter volumes (10%) than normal controls. Additionally, patients with schizophrenia performed more poorly than normal controls in both immediate and delayed facial memory tests. Moreover, the degree of poor performance on delayed memory for faces was significantly correlated with the degree of bilateral anterior FG reduction in patients with schizophrenia.
These results suggest that neuroanatomic FG abnormalities underlie at least some of the deficits associated with facial recognition in schizophrenia.


Available from: Martha E Shenton, May 24, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Differential neural activation at encoding can predict which stimuli will be subsequently remembered or forgotten, and memory deficits are pronounced in schizophrenia. We used event-related fMRI to investigate subsequent memory effects for visual fractals in patients with schizophrenia (n=26) and healthy controls (n=28). Participants incidentally encoded the fractals during an oddball task and 10 minutes later they made old/new recognition memory judgments on 30 target fractals and 30 foil fractals. We found evidence for subsequent memory (SM, subsequently remembered>subsequently forgotten) effects on regional brain activation in both groups but with distinct patterns. Region of interest analyses in controls demonstrated SM activation in both medial temporal lobe (MTL) and fusiform cortex (FF), whereas patients showed SM effects only in the FF. There were no significant between group differences in MTL activation; however, patients demonstrated greater FF activation than controls. Notably, greater FF activation during successful encoding was associated with more severe negative symptoms. Exploratory whole brain analyses in patients demonstrated SM activation in the occipital pole, lateral occipital cortex, left inferior temporal gyrus, and fusiform cortex; whereas in controls there was no significant activation that survived correction for multiple comparisons. Our findings suggest that patients, particularly those with prominent negative symptoms, may activate FF as a compensatory strategy to promote successful encoding, with relatively less reliance on MTL recruitment.
    Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.10.012 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Delusional disorder (DD) is a rare and understudied psychiatric disorder. There is limited number of studies concerning cognitive characteristics in DD. Using an established working memory paradigm with variable levels of memory load, we investigated alterations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of brain regions in patients with DD. Methods: This case control study included 9 patients with DD and 9 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex, and education level. Diagnosis of DD was confirmed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I. The severity of the symptoms was evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. All patients were asked to perform 0-back and 2-back tasks during fMRI experiments. Functional imaging was performed using the 3.0 T Philips whole-body scanner using an 8-channel head coil. Results: Participants with DD had less neural activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in fMRI scans obtained during performance tasks. On the other hand, neural activation of the left and right superior temporal gyrus, left middle and inferior temporal gyrus, right and left posterior cingulate gyrus, right amygdala, left and right fusiform gyrus was more prominent in patients with DD in comparison with the control group. Discussion: Patients with DD had dysfunction in the prefrontal, temporal and limbic regions of the brain in particular, during performance tasks of working memory. Our findings were in line with the findings of the early reports on deficient functioning in temporal or limbic regions of the brain. Further, patients with DD displayed prefrontal dysfunction as seen in patients with schizophrenia.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 05/2014; 56. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.04.022 · 4.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28) and bipolar disorder (n = 23) to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or "theory of mind") and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics). Compared with healthy controls (n = 29), the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions.
    03/2014; 2:e330. DOI:10.7717/peerj.330