Carcinogenic semicarbazide induces sequence-specific DNA damage through the generation of reactive oxygen species and the derived organic radicals
ABSTRACT Semicarbazide, a hydrazine derivative, is carcinogenic to mice but shows no or little mutagenicity in the Salmonella-microsome test. To clarify whether or not the genotoxic mechanism contributes to the non-mutagenic carcinogenicity of semicarbazide, we investigated DNA damage induced by semicarbazide using 32P-5'-end-labeled DNA fragments obtained from the c-Ha-ras-1 protooncogene and the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Semicarbazide caused DNA damage frequently at the thymine and cytosine residues in the presence of Cu(II). Catalase and bathocuproine partially inhibited DNA damage, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide plus Cu(I) participates in DNA damage. When a high concentration of semicarbazide was used in the presence of catalase, DNA damage was induced, especially at G in 5'-AG and slightly at 5'-G in GG and GGG sequences. An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic study has confirmed that the reaction of semicarbazide with Cu(II) produces carbamoyl radicals (z.rad;CONH(2)), possibly generated via the nitrogen-centered radicals of semicarbazide. Azodicarbonamide also produced carbamoyl radicals and induced DNA damage frequently at 5'-G in GG and GGG sequences, suggesting that carbamoyl radicals participate in this sequence-specific DNA damage by semicarbazide. On the basis of our previous reports, we consider that the sequence-specific DNA damage at G in 5'-AG in the present study is due to the nitrogen-centered radicals. This study has shown that semicarbazide induces DNA damage in the presence of Cu(II) through the formation of hydrogen peroxide and Cu(I). In addition, semicarbazide-derived free radicals participate in DNA damage. DNA damage induced by these reactive species may be relevant to the carcinogenicity of semicarbazide.
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ABSTRACT: Aims Aristolochic acid (AA) nephrotoxicity is related to accumulation of methylglyoxal (MGO) and Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) in the mouse kidney. We studied the activity of renal semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), a key enzyme involved in MGO generation, in AA-treated mice, and investigated nephroprotective effects produced by metformin, a MGO scavenger. Methods Mice were orally administered water or metformin for 15 days (12 or 24 mg kg− 1 day− 1), and injected AA (5 mg kg− 1 day− 1) intraperitoneally for 8 days starting on day 8. Renal function was studied, and histopathological examination, determination of renal SSAO activity, and measurement of MGO levels were performed. Key findings Compared to control mice, AA-injected mice showed significant renal damage and approximately 2.7-fold greater renal SSAO activity (p < 0.05). Further, compared to control treatment, administration of 12 mg/kg metformin inhibited formation of renal lesions, and significantly decreased renal MGO levels (37.33 ± 9.78 vs. 5.89 ± 2.64 μg/mg of protein, respectively, p < 0.01). In the AA-treated mice, metformin also inhibited the accumulation of CML in renal tubules, but did not affect SSAO activity. Significance This study is the first to show elevated renal SSAO activity in AA-treated mice, which could be involved in MGO accumulation. Moreover, MGO scavenging by metformin reduces AA nephrotoxicity. These findings suggest that reducing MGO accumulation produces nephroprotection, revealing new therapeutic strategies for the management. SSAO is a key enzyme involved in MGO generation, and consequently, inhibition of renal SSAO activity is worth investigating in AA nephrotoxicity and other renal pathologies further.Life Sciences 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2014.07.034 · 2.30 Impact Factor