Searching for the Structure of Coping: A Review and Critique of Category Systems for Classifying Ways of Coping

Department of Psychology, Portland State University, Oregon 97207-0751, USA.
Psychological Bulletin (Impact Factor: 14.39). 04/2003; 129(2):216-69. DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.129.2.216
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT From analyzing 100 assessments of coping, the authors critiqued strategies and identified best practices for constructing category systems. From current systems, a list of 400 ways of coping was compiled. For constructing lower order categories, the authors concluded that confirmatory factor analysis should replace the 2 most common strategies (exploratory factor analysis and rational sorting). For higher order categories, they recommend that the 3 most common distinctions (problem- vs. emotion-focused, approach vs. avoidance, and cognitive vs. behavioral) no longer be used. Instead, the authors recommend hierarchical systems of action types (e.g., proximity seeking, accommodation). From analysis of 6 such systems, 13 potential core families of coping were identified. Future steps involve deciding how to organize these families, using their functional homogeneity and distinctiveness, and especially their links to adaptive processes.

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Available from: Ellen Skinner, Jan 13, 2015
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    • "Although several socio-cognitive variables have been shown to impact forgiveness, a critical role has been attributed to rumination (Ysseldyk, Matheson, & Anisman, 2007). Rumination is characterized by a ''passive and repetitive focus on the negative and damaging features of a stressful transaction'' (Skinner, Edge, Altman, & Sherwood, 2003, p. 242). Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that forgiveness is negatively related to rumination (Berry, Worthington, Parrott, O'Connor, & Wade, 2001; Thompson et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous work has demonstrated that individuals high (vs. low) in forgiveness are faster to rate their current thoughts and feelings toward their transgressor (i.e., their state forgiveness), but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. The present study examined whether individual differences in rumination about the transgression would mediate the association between forgiveness and response time. Participants (N = 767) completed measures of trait forgiveness, rumination about the transgression, and state forgiveness (while response time was unobtrusively recorded). Trait forgiveness was significantly negatively associated with response time and this effect was mediated by lower rumination about the transgression. Results support the use of response time as an unobtrusive measure of forgiveness related processes and further clarify the role of rumination about the transgression in the forgive-ness–response time link.
    Personality and Individual Differences 08/2015; 82:90-95. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.03.016 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    • "Coping styles can be ranked according to how functional vs dysfunctional they are. Frequent strategies ranked in this way start with 'problem solving'and 'support seeking', continue via 'emotional expression'and 'aggression'to end up with 'wishful thinking'and 'worry'(Skinner et al., 2003). Another categorization distinguishes between problem-focused and emotion-focused copying styles (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984). "
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    ABSTRACT: Stress is ubiquitous in society. We present a model where stressors translate into subjective stress via an appraisal process. Stress reduces instantaneous (experienced) utility of an individual directly and via a cognitive load argument. Coping can be functional and under the control of the individual or more automatic with dysfunctional features. We predict the occurrence and frequency of controlled vs uncontrolled coping - emotional outbursts - as a function of an individualís personality and environment. We show that outbursts cannot always be avoided. We also show that artificially delaying emotional outbursts can lead to even more outbursts. Looking at the effect of psychotherapy shows that becoming less emotional might not be the appropriate strategy.
    various talks at various Universities and conferences, current version available at; 07/2015
    • "c o m / l o c a t e / p a i d On the other hand, the search for the empirical organization of coping has resulted in structures that are closer to personality dimensions than to rationally-based taxonomies. Thus, whereas the problem-and emotion-focused classification has not received convincing support, the finding of an approach–avoidance axis is ubiquitous in the field of coping, and is frequently accompanied by an independent dimension of help-seeking (Duhachek & Oakley, 2007; Skinner et al., 2003). Interestingly, this organization transcends the domain of coping and seems to overlap with the basic mechanisms that regulate human behavior, such as constraint/control, fear-avoidance or affiliative bonding (Corr, DeYoung, & McNaughton, 2013; Depue & Fu, 2011; Derryberry et al., 2003; Gutiérrez, Peri, Torres, Caseras, & Valdés, 2007; Keay & Bandler, 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Most taxonomies of coping have been built as if coping strategies were unrelated to all other aspects of personality. However, the evidence suggests some overlaps, and it may be that basic personality axes such as constraint, fearfulness or affiliation constitute a meaningful organizing principle for coping. In a sample of 499 outpatients, we examined the ability of the Temperament and Character Inventory to predict the fifteen coping strategies measured by the COPE. We also studied the joint structure of personality dimensions and coping. Engagement strategies were mainly enacted by subjects with low fear, high self-efficacy and high persistence, whereas roughly the opposite was true for Disengagement. Help-seeking strategies were exclusively aligned with affiliation dimensions. Our results clarify the empirical structure of coping strategies, and locate them within the broader and better-known space of personality axes.
    Personality and Individual Differences 07/2015; 80:96-100. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.02.024 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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