Searching for the Structure of Coping: A Review and Critique of Category Systems for Classifying Ways of Coping

Department of Psychology, Portland State University, Oregon 97207-0751, USA.
Psychological Bulletin (Impact Factor: 14.76). 04/2003; 129(2):216-69. DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.129.2.216
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT From analyzing 100 assessments of coping, the authors critiqued strategies and identified best practices for constructing category systems. From current systems, a list of 400 ways of coping was compiled. For constructing lower order categories, the authors concluded that confirmatory factor analysis should replace the 2 most common strategies (exploratory factor analysis and rational sorting). For higher order categories, they recommend that the 3 most common distinctions (problem- vs. emotion-focused, approach vs. avoidance, and cognitive vs. behavioral) no longer be used. Instead, the authors recommend hierarchical systems of action types (e.g., proximity seeking, accommodation). From analysis of 6 such systems, 13 potential core families of coping were identified. Future steps involve deciding how to organize these families, using their functional homogeneity and distinctiveness, and especially their links to adaptive processes.

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    • "Adaptive Coping Strategies Problem-focused coping was measured as one coping strategy considered to be adaptive for the current task context; more specifically, strategies aimed at strategizing and tackling problems head-on (see Skinner et al. 2003). This was measured with 4 items drawn from the problem-focused coping measure of Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) Ways of Coping Checklist (WOCC). "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: We examine the interaction between trait resilience and control in predicting coping and performance. Drawing on a person–environment fit perspective, we hypothesized resilient individuals would cope and perform better in demanding work situations when control was high. In contrast, those low in resilience would cope and perform better when control was low. Recognizing the relationship between trait resilience and performance also could be indirect, adaptive coping was examined as a mediating mechanism through which high control enables resilient individuals to demonstrate better performance. Methodology: In Study 1 (N = 78) and Study 2 (N = 94), participants completed a demanding inbox task in which trait resilience was measured and high and low control was manipulated. Study 3 involved surveying 368 employees on their trait resilience, control, and demand at work (at Time 1), and coping and performance 1 month later at Time 2. Findings: For more resilient individuals, high control facilitated problem-focused coping (Study 1, 2, and 3), which was indirectly associated with higher subjective performance (Study 1), mastery (Study 2), adaptive, and proficient performance (Study 3). For more resilient individuals, high control also facilitated positive reappraisal (Study 2 and 3), which was indirectly associated with higher adaptive and proficient performance (Study 3). Implications: Individuals higher in resilience benefit from high control because it enables adaptive coping. Originality/value: This research makes two contributions: (1) an experimental investigation into the interaction of trait resilience and control, and (2) investigation of coping as the mechanism explaining better performance.
    Journal of Business and Psychology 08/2015; 30(3):583-604. DOI:10.1007/s10869-014-9383-4 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    • "Although several socio-cognitive variables have been shown to impact forgiveness, a critical role has been attributed to rumination (Ysseldyk, Matheson, & Anisman, 2007). Rumination is characterized by a ''passive and repetitive focus on the negative and damaging features of a stressful transaction'' (Skinner, Edge, Altman, & Sherwood, 2003, p. 242). Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that forgiveness is negatively related to rumination (Berry, Worthington, Parrott, O'Connor, & Wade, 2001; Thompson et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous work has demonstrated that individuals high (vs. low) in forgiveness are faster to rate their current thoughts and feelings toward their transgressor (i.e., their state forgiveness), but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. The present study examined whether individual differences in rumination about the transgression would mediate the association between forgiveness and response time. Participants (N = 767) completed measures of trait forgiveness, rumination about the transgression, and state forgiveness (while response time was unobtrusively recorded). Trait forgiveness was significantly negatively associated with response time and this effect was mediated by lower rumination about the transgression. Results support the use of response time as an unobtrusive measure of forgiveness related processes and further clarify the role of rumination about the transgression in the forgive-ness–response time link.
    Personality and Individual Differences 08/2015; 82:90-95. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.03.016 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    • "In addition, less avoidant coping is associated with better treatment gains in treatment for adolescent anxiety (Essau et al., 2012). Although scholars commonly dichotomize coping into broadband categories (e.g., approach vs. avoidance strategies), studies employing factor analysis suggest that categorizing coping into narrowband dimensions more adequately represents the range of youth coping behavior (Connor-Smith et al., 2000; Skinner et al., 2003). Given that individuals tend to engage in multiple coping strategies, the current study takes a multidimensional approach to studying adolescent coping by investigating coping profiles, rather than focusing on any single strategy. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to identify groups of adolescents based on their reported use of different coping strategies and compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms across the groups. Tenth and eleventh grade public school students (N=982; 51% girls; 66% Caucasian; M age=16.04, SD=0.73) completed a battery of self-report measures that assessed their use of different coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Latent profile analysis (LPA) classified the participants into four distinct groups based on their responses on subscales of the COPE inventory (Carver et al., 1989). Groups differed in amount of coping with participants in each group showing relative preference for engaging in certain strategies over others. Disengaged copers reported the lowest amounts of coping with a preference for avoidance strategies. Independent copers reported moderate levels of coping with relatively less use of support-seeking. Social support-seeking copers and active copers reported the highest levels of coping with a particular preference for support-seeking strategies. The independent copers reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms compared to the three other groups. The Social Support Seeking and Active Coping Groups reported the highest levels of anxiety. Although distinct coping profiles were observed, findings showed that adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 engage in multiple coping strategies and are more likely to vary in their amount of coping than in their use of specific strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 08/2015; 186:312-319. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.07.031 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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