Serum concentrations of remnant-like particles in hypothyroid patients before and after thyroxine replacement.
ABSTRACT Remnant-like particles (RLPs) reflect chylomicron remnants and very-low-density lipoprotein remnants, which are most likely to be atherogenic particles. To investigate the effect of thyroxine replacement on the metabolism of RLPs in hypothyroidism, we measured serum concentrations of RLPs during an oral fat-loading test in patients with hypothyroidism before and after thyroxine replacement.
Thirteen patients with hypothyroidism, having serum-free thyroxine (FT4) of 4.25 +/- 2.23 pmol/l (mean +/- SD) and TSH of 72.5 +/- 27.7 mU/l, participated in the study. Two-hundred grams of cream containing 32.9% of fat were given to each patient followed by blood draws every 2 h for 8 h. The patients became euthyroid after 3 months of T4 replacement, and the fat-loading tests were then repeated.
Fasting levels of serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were remarkably decreased after T4 therapy (P < 0.0005). Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride were also decreased by T4 therapy, not so remarkably but significantly (P < 0.05). Activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) increased 52% and 85%, respectively, from the pretreatment values. Serum concentrations of remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) and remnant-like particle triglyceride (RLP-TG), measured by immunoseparation assays, significantly decreased from 0.14 +/- 0.03 to 0.09 +/- 0.03 mmol/l (P < 0.0005) and from 0.19 +/- 0.11-0.11 +/- 0.07 mmol/l (P < 0.01), respectively. In the fat-loading test, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were not changed, while serum RLPs concentrations were increased and remained high throughout the test, with the peak value at 6 h in a hypothyroid condition. In an euthyroid condition after T4 therapy, the peak values of RLPs were obtained at 4 h, and the concentrations were decreased rapidly. As the result, areas under the curve of serum RLPs were decreased remarkably after T4 therapy.
Hypothyroidism seems to be associated with a decrease in metabolism of serum RLPs. Such altered metabolism of RLPs may be related to the decreased activities of LPL and HTGL and can be corrected by T4 replacement therapy.
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ABSTRACT: The effects of diseases of the liver, the thyroid, and the kidneys on the retinol-binding protein (RBP)-prealbumin (PA) system responsible for the transport of vitamin A in plasma were examined, using a radial gel diffusion immunoassay for PA and the previously described radioimmunoassay for RBP. Measurements were made on plasma samples from 118 normal subjects, 31 patients with cirrhosis, 5 with chronic active hepatitis, 27 with acute viral hepatitis, 14 patients with hyperthyroidism, 7 with hypothyroidism, and 26 patients with chronic renal disease of varying etiologies. In the patients with liver disease, the levels of vitamin A, RBP, and PA were all markedly decreased and were highly significantly correlated over a wide range of concentrations. Serial samples were available in 19 patients with acute hepatitis; as the disease improved the plasma concentrations of vitamin A, RBP, and PA all increased. In patients with acute hepatitis RBP concentrations correlated negatively with the levels of plasma bilirubin, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase. In the hyperthyroid patients both RBP and PA concentrations were significantly lower than normal; in hypothyroidism, neither protein showed levels significantly different from normal. In both hyper- and hypothyroidism and in liver disease, the molar ratios of RBP:PA and of RBP:vitamin A were not significantly different from normal.Patients with chronic renal disease had marked abnormalities in the plasma concentrations of RBP and vitamin A and in the molar ratios examined. In renal disease the levels of both RBP and vitamin A were greatly elevated, while the PA levels remained normal. The molar ratios of RBP:PA and of RBP:vitamin A were both markedly elevated. In many patients RBP was present in molar excess as compared with PA. The presence of a relatively large proportion of free RBP, not complexed to PA, in some patients with chronic renal disease was confirmed by gel filtration. The free RBP, present in molar excess, was capable of forming a complex with additional purified PA added to the plasma. The kidneys appear to play an important role in the normal metabolism of RBP.Journal of Clinical Investigation 12/1971; 50(11):2426-36. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Plasma lipoprotein concentrations, activities of hepatic lipase and lipoprotein lipase in post-heparin plasma, and the removal rate of exogenous triglyceride were measured in fourteen patients with severe primary hypothyroidism before and after 4 months substitution therapy with 1-thyroxine. Before treatment plasma LDL cholesterol concentrations were markedly increased while HDL cholesterol and plasma triglycerides were in the upper reference range. Thyroxine substitution led to a normalization of LDL cholesterol in all patients. Plasma triglycerides and HDL cholesterol decreased moderately. Hepatic lipase and lipoprotein lipase activities were initially reduced but increased significantly after treatment, by about 170% and 55%, respectively. The increase in hepatic lipase activities was significantly correlated to the increase in serum triiodothyronine levels and also to the reduction in LDL cholesterol concentrations. The decrease in LDL cholesterol was also significantly correlated to the increase in serum triiodothyronine concentration. In two patients initially treated with triiodothyronine, the activity of hepatic lipase, but not that of lipoprotein lipase, increased after 24 and 48 h, while LDL cholesterol levels decreased substantially. We suggest that the reduced activities of hepatic lipase as well as of lipoprotein lipase are important pathogenetic factors for the dyslipoproteinaemia occurring in hypothyroidism and that the low serum triiodothyronine concentration is of major importance for the alterations in lipid transport.European Journal of Clinical Investigation 11/1982; 12(5):423-8. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether an increased familial risk for coronary artery disease in young adult men is related to changes in postprandial lipoprotein metabolism. Cross-sectional study. Coronary angiography departments of four central general hospitals in the Netherlands. 80 sons (mean age, 24.8 years) of men with severe coronary artery disease and 55 sons (mean age, 23.2 years) of controls. Postprandial levels of serum triglycerides, retinyl palmitate, and total cholesterol were measured during a 12-hour period after a standardized oral lipid load. Both groups showed a marked increase in levels of serum triglyceride and retinyl palmitate after lipid loading, reaching a maximum 4 to 6 hours postprandially. No changes in postprandial total cholesterol levels were observed in either group. Sons of men with coronary artery disease had prolonged postprandial hypertriglyceridemia when compared with sons of controls. Significant differences in postprandial triglyceride levels were found at 8 hours (difference, 0.35 mmol/L; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.62 mmol/L), at 10 hours (difference, 0.21 mmol/L; CI, 0.06 to 0.36 mmol/L), and at 12 hours after lipid loading (difference, 0.13 mmol/L; CI, 0.01 to 0.26 mmol/L). Levels of postprandial retinyl palmitate were also slightly, but not statistically, different (mainly after 6 hours). Healthy young adult sons, whose fathers have established coronary artery disease, have prolonged postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. Changes in postprandial lipoprotein metabolism appear to be associated with familial risk for coronary atherosclerosis.Annals of internal medicine 11/1994; 121(8):576-83. · 13.98 Impact Factor