Previous evidence showed that single-shock stimulation of dorsal hippocampal commissure (PSD) fibers to the entorhinal cortex led to sequential activation of perforant path neurons to the dentate gyrus, dentate granule cells, pyramidal neurons of hippocampal fields CA3 and CA1, and, through reentrant hippocampal impulses, neurons of deep and superficial layers of the entorhinal cortex. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether perforant path neurons to CA1 are activated by the PSD input and/or by the reentrant hippocampal impulses in this model. Field potentials evoked by single-shock (0.1-Hz) or repetitive (1-4 Hz) PSD stimulation were recorded in anesthetized guinea pigs from the entorhinal cortex, dentate gyrus, fields CA1 and CA3, and subiculum. A current source-density analysis of the evoked potentials was used to localize the input to field CA1 and dentate gyrus. After either single-shock or repetitive PSD stimulation, an early current sink was found in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, but no sink was present in CA1. With low-frequency PSD stimulation, a late (approximately 40-ms) surface positive wave occurred in field CA1 alone. During this wave, a current sink was found in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA1, but no sink was present in the dentate gyrus. The late wave had threshold and magnitude related to the building up of the response evoked by reentrant hippocampal impulses in layer III of the entorhinal cortex and was abolished by selective interruption of the perforant path to CA1. The results show that the commissural input to the entorhinal cortex activates perforant path neurons to the dentate gyrus, but not those to field CA1 which are recruited by repetitive hippocampal impulses. These findings show different frequency-dependent patterns of loop operation that might be related to different behaviors.
"Astrocytes contribute to local blood flow in the hippocampus, and we observed a statistically significant reduction in the number of GFAP-immunolabeled cells in the lacunosum moleculare of CA1 in HD mice late in life; thus, we predict that hippocampal blood flow is altered in 18-month-old mice. The decrease in GFAP immunolabeling may be secondary to a reduction of neuronal activity induced by aging in the temporoammonic pathway in mice [36,55]. However, since the astrocytic atrophy in SD mice seemed more severe than in HD mice, an alternative interpretation is that aging and a SD could be related to the decrease in functional memory at 18 months. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chewing imbalances are associated with neurodegeneration and are risk factors for senile dementia in humans and memory deficits in experimental animals. We investigated the impact of long-term reduced mastication on spatial memory in young, mature and aged female albino Swiss mice by stereological analysis of the laminar distribution of CA1 astrocytes. A soft diet (SD) was used to reduce mastication in the experimental group, whereas the control group was fed a hard diet (HD). Assays were performed in 3-, 6- and 18-month-old SD and HD mice.
Eating a SD variably affected the number of astrocytes in the CA1 hippocampal field, and SD mice performed worse on water maze memory tests than HD mice. Three-month-old mice in both groups could remember/find a hidden platform in the water maze. However, 6-month-old SD mice, but not HD mice, exhibited significant spatial memory dysfunction. Both SD and HD 18-month-old mice showed spatial memory decline. Older SD mice had astrocyte hyperplasia in the strata pyramidale and oriens compared to 6-month-old mice. Aging induced astrocyte hypoplasia at 18 months in the lacunosum-moleculare layer of HD mice.
Taken together, these results suggest that the impaired spatial learning and memory induced by masticatory deprivation and aging may be associated with altered astrocyte laminar distribution and number in the CA1 hippocampal field. The underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown and merit further investigation.
"It is therefore inferred that reverberation readily appears in the enhanced entorhinal-hippocampal loop circuits. The frequency of the reverberation would be in a gamma range because it takes signals 20–30 ms to go around the loop circuits (Buzsá ki 1989; Buzsá ki et al. 1990; Bartesaghi and Gessi 2003). Theta rhythm is observed in a wide range of the entorhinal cortex and the hippocampus (Mitchell and Rank 1980; Alonso and García-Austt 1987; Buzsá ki 2002). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated successive firing of the stellate cells within a theta cycle, which replicates the phase coding of place information, using a network model of the entorhinal cortex layer II with loop connections. Layer II of the entorhinal cortex (ECII) sends signals to the hippocampus, and the hippocampus sends signals back to layer V of the entorhinal cortex (ECV). In addition to this major pathway, projection from ECV to ECII also exists. It is, therefore, inferred that reverberation activity readily appears if projections from ECV to ECII are potentiated. The frequency of the reverberation would be in a gamma range because it takes signals 20-30 ms to go around the entorhinal-hippocampal loop circuits. On the other hand, it has been suggested that ECII is a theta rhythm generator. If the reverberation activity appears in the entorhinal-hippocampal loop circuits, gamma oscillation would be superimposed on a theta rhythm in ECII like a gamma-theta oscillation. This is a reminiscence of the theta phase coding of place information. In this paper, first, a network model of ECII will be developed in order to reproduce a theta rhythm. Secondly, we will show that loop connections from one stellate cell to the other one are selectively potentiated by afferent signals to ECII. Frequencies of those afferent signals are different, and transmission delay of the loop connections is 20 ms. As a result, stellate cells fire successively within one cycle of the theta rhythm. This resembles gamma-theta oscillation underlying the phase coding. Our model also replicates the phase precession of stellate cell firing within a cycle of subthreshold oscillation (theta rhythm).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies showed that dorsal psalterium (PSD) volleys to the entorhinal cortex (ENT) activated in layer II perforant path neurons projecting to the dentate gyrus. The discharge of layer II neurons was followed by the sequential activation of the dentate gyrus (DG), field CA3, field CA1. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether in this experimental model field, CA2, a largely ignored sector, is activated either directly by perforant path volleys and/or indirectly by recurrent hippocampal projections. Field potentials evoked by single-shock PSD stimulation were recorded in anesthetized guinea pigs from ENT, DG, fields CA2, CA1, and CA3. Current source-density (CSD) analysis was used to localize the input/s to field CA2. The results showed the presence in field CA2 of an early population spike superimposed on a slow wave (early response) and of a late and smaller population spike, superimposed on a slow wave (late response). CSD analysis during the early CA2 response showed a current sink in stratum lacunosum-moleculare, followed by a sink moving from stratum radiatum to stratum pyramidale, suggesting that this response represented the activation and discharge of CA2 pyramidal neurons, mediated by perforant path fibers to this field. CSD analysis during the late response showed a current sink in middle stratum radiatum of CA2 followed by a sink moving from inner stratum radiatum to stratum pyramidale, suggesting that this response was mediated by Schaffer collaterals from field CA3. No early population spike was evoked in CA3. However, an early current sink of small magnitude was evoked in stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA3, suggesting the presence of synaptic currents mediated by perforant path fibers to this field. The results provide novel information about the perforant path system, by showing that dorsal psalterium volleys to the entorhinal cortex activate perforant path neurons that evoke the parallel discharge of granule cells and CA2 pyramidal neurons and depolarization, but no discharge of CA3 pyramidal neurons. Consequently, field CA2 may mediate the direct transfer of ENT signals to hippocampal and extrahippocampal structures in parallel with the DG-CA3-CA1 system and may provide a security factor in situations in which the latter is disrupted.
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