Effect of diesel exhaust particulate on bacillus Calmette-Guerin lung infection in mice and attendant changes in lung interstitial lymphoid subpopulations and IFNgamma response.
ABSTRACT The effect of exposure to diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) on bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) lung infection in mice was studied. C57Bl/6J female mice were infected with BCG (2.5 x 104 bacteria/mouse) by intrapulmonary instillation, with or without coadministration of DEP (100 microg/mouse). Five weeks later, mice exposed to DEP + BCG had about a four-fold higher BCG load in the lungs than mice exposed only to BCG (p < 0.05). DEP treatment alone had no effect on the total number of lung lymphocytes or numbers of T, B, or NK cells recovered from lungs. In contrast, BCG infection significantly increased (p< 0.05) recovery levels of all types of lymphocytes from lungs. Coexposure to DEP + BCG further increased the recovery of lymphocytes from lungs of BCG-infected mice. The pulmonary lymphocyte subpopulation expressing the greatest levels of mRNA for IFNgamma after BCG infection was CD4+ T cells. Expression levels were similar in mice exposed to BCG or BCG + DEP and were elevated as compared to noninfected mice and mice treated with DEP alone. Recovery of IFNgamma-secreting lymphocytes and IFNgamma-secreting T cells was significantly higher (p < 0.05) from lungs of BCG-infected mice as compared to control or DEP-exposed mice. BCG and BCG + DEP groups of mice did not differ significantly in the numbers of IFNgamma-secreting lymphocytes in lungs. Taken together, these results indicated that coexposure to DEP + BCG did not significantly affect the level of IFNgamma response of mice to BCG infection. However, DEP treatment was found to inhibit IFNgamma-induced nitric oxide (NO) production by mouse alveolar macrophages in vitro. Our results indicate that DEP exposure did not alter the IFNgamma response to BCG infection, but reduced responsiveness of alveolar macrophages to IFNgamma. Reduced sensitivity of DEP-exposed alveolar macrophages to IFNgamma may contribute to a greater load of BCG in the lungs of BCG-infected mice given DEP.
Article: Isolation and quantitative estimation of diesel exhaust and carbon black particles ingested by lung epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages in vitro.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A new procedure for isolating and estimating ingested carbonaceous diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or carbon black (CB) particles by lung epithelial cells and macrophages is described. Cells were incubated with DEP or CB to examine cell-particle interaction and ingestion. After various incubation periods, the cells were separated from free extracellular DEP or CB particles by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation and dissolved in hot sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent. Insoluble DEP or CB residues were isolated by high-speed centrifugation, and the elemental carbon (EC) concentrations in the pellets were estimated by a thermal-optical-transmittance method (i.e., carbon analysis). From the EC concentration, the amount of ingested DEP or CB could be calculated. The described technique allowed the determination of the kinetics and dose dependence of DEP uptake by LA4 lung epithelial cells and MHS alveolar macrophages. Both cell types ingested DEP to a similar degree; however, the MHS macrophages took up significantly more CB than the epithelial cells. Cytochalasin D, an agent that blocks actin polymerization in the cells, inhibited approximately 80% of DEP uptake by both cell types, indicating that the process was actin-dependent in a manner similar to phagocytosis. This technique can be applied to examine the interactions between cells and particles containing EC and to study the modulation of particle uptake in diseased tissue.BioTechniques 06/2008; 44(6):799-805. · 2.67 Impact Factor