Near-infrared fluorescent imaging of tumor apoptosis.
ABSTRACT Noninvasive imaging using radioactive annexin V is an emerging strategy for the assessment of cell death in vivo (F. G. Blankenberg, and H. W. Strauss. Apoptosis, 6: 117-123, 2001.). Therefore, we investigated whether annexin V labeled with the fluorophore Cy5.5 (Cy) could serve as a probe for imaging of tumor apoptosis using near infrared fluorescence (NIRF). We prepared active Cy-annexin (an equimolar dye:protein ratio) that bound to apoptotic Jurkat T cells and an inactive Cy-annexin probe (>2 dyes/mol protein) that did not. Active Cy annexin was used to image a 9L gliosarcoma, constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein marker, and the CR8 variant of Lewis lung carcinoma, stably transfected to express DsRed2. The expression of transfected fluorescent protein provided an indication of tumor margins and a means of defining tumor-associated NIRF signal intensity with both tumor models. Tumors were imaged with and without cyclophosphamide treatment. In both tumor models active Cy-annexin V tumor NIRF signal increased two to three times after the treatment. Tumor NIRF signal developed by 75 min after active Cy-annexin injection and remained for a 20-h observation period. Inactive annexin V was used as a control in the CR8 carcinoma experiments and resulted in a low nonspecific signal. With the 9L gliomosacrcoma model, active Cy-annexin V bound to both tumor cells (Cy-annexin V staining only) and endothelial cells (costained with Cy-annexin V and antibody to the endothelial marker CD31). Our results demonstrate that active Cy-annexin can be used as a NIRF probe to image apoptosis from outside an intact living animal and may provide nonradioactive method of measuring the antiproliferative effects of cancer chemotherapeutic regimens.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Eyk Schellenberger, Jul 21, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Optical imaging in the form of near infrared fluorescence and bioluminescence has proven useful for a wide range of applications in the field of molecular imaging. Both techniques provide a high sensitivity (in the nanomolar range), which is of particular importance for molecular imaging. Imaging with near infrared fluorescence is especially cost effective and can be performed, in contrast to radioactivity based methods, with fluorescence dyes that remain stable for months. The most important advantage of bioluminescence, in turn, is the lack of background signal. Although molecular imaging with these techniques is still in the experimental phase, an application of near infrared fluorescence is already foreseeable for the imaging of superficial structures.Zeitschrift für Medizinische Physik 01/2005; 15(3):187-191. DOI:10.1078/0939-3889-00269 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Imaging agents that enable direct detection of apoptosis are highly desirable in the field of monitoring chemotherapeutic response as well as early diagnosis and disease monitoring. Previous work demonstrated that the dansyled amino acid DNSBA is used to specifically and selectively detect apoptotic cancer cells at the both early and late stages, but the mechanism remains unclear. In this work, we evaluated DNSBA as a tool for monitoring cell apoptosis in CNE1 tumor cell models both in vitro and ex vivo after its in vivo administration, which was confirmed by other assays. The ability of DNSBA to detect multiple pathways and different stages of apoptosis leading to cell death may be advantageous in the evaluation of cancer treatment indicative of a positive therapeutic outcome. The uptake change of molecular probes DNSBA in CNE1 cells represented the changes of apoptotic rate in a caspase-dependent manner. However, the accumulation of DNSBA in apoptotic cells did not increase with the enhanced membrane permeability. Furthermore, ex vivo study demonstrated DNSBA has a similar pattern as the TUNEL-positive cells. In conclusion, DNSBA cellular imaging is useful for the early assessment of treatment-induced apoptosis, and thus may act as a substitute for Annexin V for assessing treatment response.APOPTOSIS 01/2015; 20(3). DOI:10.1007/s10495-014-1075-z · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Monitoring response to chemo- or radiotherapy is of great importance in clinical practice. Apoptosis imaging serves as a very useful tool for the early evaluation of tumor response. The goal of this study was PET imaging of apoptosis with (18)F-labeled recombinant human annexin V linked with 10 histidine tag ((18)F-rh-His10-annexin V) in nude mice bearing an A549 tumor and rabbits bearing a VX2 lung cancer after paclitaxel therapy. (18)F-rh-His10-annexin V was prepared by conjugation of rh-His10-annexin V with N-succinimidyl 4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate. Biodistribution was determined in mice by the dissection method and small-animal PET. Single-dose paclitaxel (175 mg/m(2)) was used to induce apoptosis in A549 and VX2 tumor models. (18)F-rh-His10-annexin V was injected into A549 mice and VX rabbits to acquire dynamic and static PET images 72 h after paclitaxel treatment. The uptake of (18)F-rh-His10-annexin V in apoptotic cells 4 h after induction was 6.45±0.52 fold higher than that in non-induced cells. High focal uptake of (18)F-rh-His10-annexin V was visualized in A549 (SUVmax: 0.35±0.13) and VX2 (0.41±0.23) tumor models after paclitaxel treatment, whereas lower uptake was found in the corresponding tumors before treatment (A549 SUVmax: 0.04±0.02; VX2: 0.009±0.002). The apoptotic index was 75.61±11.56% in the treated VX2 cancer, much higher than that in the untreated VX2 (8.03±2.81%). This study demonstrated the feasibility of (18)F-rh-His10-annexin V for the detection of apoptosis after chemotherapy in A549 and VX2 tumor models.American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 01/2015; 5(1):27-37. · 3.25 Impact Factor