Laser Doppler imaging of burn scars: a comparison of wavelength and scanning methods
ABSTRACT Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDI) is a useful tool for the early clinical assessment of burn depth and prognostic evaluation of injuries that may require skin grafting. We have evaluated two commercially available laser Doppler imagers for the perfusion measurement of normal and burn scar tissue.
A single wavelength (635 nm), step-wise scanning LDI and a dual wavelength (633 and 780 nm), continuous scanning LDI were used. Twenty patients with hypertrophic burn scars (time since injury: 1 month-8 years) were recruited and the color and elevation of the scar was clinically assessed using a modified Vancouver Burn Scar Scale. Perfusion of each scar region was measured using both imagers. A symmetric contralateral region of unburned skin was also imaged to record baseline perfusion.
Comparisons of wavelength and scanning technique were made using perfusion values obtained from 22 burn scars. Highly significant positive correlation was observed in all comparisons. In addition, output from both instruments was strongly and significantly correlated with the clinical grading of the scar.
Both LDI scanners perform similar perfusion measurements. The results also indicate that red and near-infrared (NIR) wavelength photons provide similar blood flow information. The faster, continuous scanning method provides a clinical advantage without a significant loss of blood flow information. However, a critical evaluation of both instruments suggests that caution must be exercised when using these optical diagnostic techniques and that some knowledge of light-tissue interaction is required for the proper analysis and interpretation of clinical data.
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ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic scars (HTS) are a pathologic reaction of the skin and soft tissue to burn or other traumatic injury. Scar tissue can cause patients serious functional and cosmetic issues. Scar management strategies, specifically scar assessment techniques, are vital to improve clinical outcome. To date, no entirely objective method for scar assessment has been embraced by the medical community. In this study, we introduce for the first time, a novel polarized multispectral imaging system combining out-of-plane Stokes polarimetry and Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SFDI). This imaging system enables us to assess the pathophysiology (hemoglobin, blood oxygenation, water, and melanin) and structural features (cellularity and roughness) of HTS. To apply the proposed technique in an in vivo experiment, dermal wounds were created in a porcine model and allowed to form into scars. The developed scars were then measured at various time points using the imaging system. Results showed a good agreement with clinical Vancouver Scar Scale assessment and histological examinations.Biomedical Optics Express 10/2014; 5(10). DOI:10.1364/BOE.5.003337 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Scarring can lead to significant cosmetic, psychosocial, and functional consequences in patients with hypertrophic scars from burn and trauma injuries. Therefore, quantitative assessment of scar is needed in clinical diagnosis and treatment. The Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS), the accepted clinical scar assessment tool, was introduced in the nineties and relies only on the physician subjective evaluation of skin pliability, height, vascularity, and pigmentation. To date, no entirely objective method has been available for scar assessment. So, there is a continued need for better techniques to monitor patients with scars. We introduce a new spectral imaging system combining out-of-plane Stokes polarimetry, Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SFDI), and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. The main idea behind this system is to estimate hemoglobin and melanin contents of scar using SFDI technique, roughness and directional anisotropy features with Stokes polarimetry, and height and general shape with 3D reconstruction. Our proposed tool has several advantages compared to current methodologies. First and foremost, it is non-contact and non-invasive and thus can be used at any stage in wound healing without causing harm to the patient. Secondarily, the height, pigmentation, and hemoglobin assessments are co-registered and are based on imaging and not point measurement, allowing for more meaningful interpretation of the data. Finally, the algorithms used in the data analysis are physics based which will be very beneficial in the standardization of the technique. A swine model has also been developed for hypertrophic scarring and an ongoing pre-clinical evaluation of the technique is being conducted.Conference on Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics IX; 03/2013
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ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic scarring is extremely common and is the source of most morbidity related to burns. The biology of hypertrophic healing is complex and poorly understood. Multiple host and injury factors contribute, but protracted healing of partial thickness injury is a common theme. Hypertrophic scarring and heterotopic ossification may share some basic causes involving marrow-derived cells. Several traditional clinical interventions exist to modify hypertrophic scar. All have limited efficacy. Laser interventions for scar modification show promise, but as yet do not provide a definitive solution. Their efficacy is only seen when used as part of a multimodality scar management program.Surgical Clinics of North America 08/2014; 94(4):793–815. DOI:10.1016/j.suc.2014.05.005 · 1.93 Impact Factor