Regulation of heme oxygenase expression by cyclopentenone prostaglandins.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21217, USA.
Experimental Biology and Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.8). 06/2003; 228(5):499-505.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Prostaglandins (PGs) originate from the degradation of membranar arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2). The prostaglandin actions in the nervous system are multiple and have been suggested to play a significant role in neurodegenerative disorders. Some PGs have been reported to be toxic and, interestingly, the cyclopentenone PGs have been reported to be cytoprotective at low concentration and could play a significant role in neuronal plasticity. They have been shown to be protective against oxidative stress injury; however, the cellular mechanisms of protection afforded by these PGs are still unclear. It is postulated that the cascade leading to neuronal cell death in acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions, such as cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer's disease, would be mediated by free radical damage. We tested the hypothesis that the neuroprotective action of cyclopentanone could be caused partially by an induction of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). We and others have previously reported that modulation of HO total activity may well have direct physiological implications in stroke and in Alzheimer's disease. HO acts as an antioxidant enzyme by degrading heme into iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin that is rapidly converted into bilirubin. Using mouse primary neuronal cultures, we demonstrated that PGs of the J series induce HO-1 in a dose-dependent manner (0, 0.5, 5, 10, 20, and 50 micro g/ml) and that PGJ(2) and dPGJ(2) were more potent than PGA(2), dPGA(2), PGD(2), and PGE(2). No significant effects were observed for HO-2 and actin expression. In regard to HO-3 expression found in rat, with its protein deducted sequence highly homologous to HO-2, no detection was observed in HO-2(-/-) mice, suggesting that HO-3 protein would not be present in mouse brain. We are proposing that several of the protective effects of PGJ(2) could be mediated through beneficial actions of heme degradation and its metabolites. The design of new mimetics based on the cyclopentenone structure could be very useful as neuroprotective agents and be tested in animal models of stroke and Alzheimer's disease.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Buyang Huanwu Decoction fraction extracted from Buyang Huanwu Decoction contains saponins of Astragalus, total paeony glycoside and safflower flavones. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the neuroprotective effect and mechanism of Buyang Huanwu Decoction fraction on ischemic injury both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo experiments showed that 50-200 mg/kg Buyang Huanwu Decoction fraction reduced infarct volume and pathological injury in ischemia/reperfusion rats, markedly inhibited expression of nuclear factor-κB and tumor necrosis factor-α and promoted nestin protein expression in brain tissue. Buyang Huanwu Decoction fraction (200 mg/kg) exhibited significant effects, which were similar to those of 100 mg/kg Ginkgo biloba extract. In vitro experimental results demonstrated that 10-100 mg/L Buyang Huanwu Decoction fraction significantly improved cell viability, decreased the release of lactate dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde levels, and inhibited the rate of apoptosis in HT22 cells following oxygen-glucose deprivation. Buyang Huanwu Decoction fraction (100 mg/L) exhibited significant effects, which were similar to those of 100 mg/L Ginkgo biloba extract. These findings suggest that Buyang Huanwu Decoction fraction may represent a novel, protective strategy against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats and oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced damage in HT22 cells in vitro by attenuating the inflammatory response and cellular apoptosis.
    Neural Regeneration Research 01/2013; 8(3):197-207. · 0.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is a common condition in the first week of postnatal life. Although generally harmless, some neonates may develop very high levels of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), which may surpass the protective mechanisms of the brain in preventing UCB accumulation. In this case, both short-term and long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as acute and chronic UCB encephalopathy, known as kernicterus, or more subtle alterations defined as bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction (BIND) may be produced. There is a tremendous variability in babies' vulnerability toward UCB for reasons not yet explained, but preterm birth, sepsis, hypoxia, and hemolytic disease are comprised as risk factors. Therefore, UCB levels and neurological abnormalities are not strictly correlated. Even nowadays, the mechanisms of UCB neurotoxicity are still unclear, as are specific biomarkers, and little is known about lasting sequelae attributable to hyperbilirubinemia. On autopsy, UCB was shown to be within neurons, neuronal processes, and microglia, and to produce loss of neurons, demyelination, and gliosis. In isolated cell cultures, UCB was shown to impair neuronal arborization and to induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from microglia and astrocytes. However, cell dependent sensitivity to UCB toxicity and the role of each nerve cell type remains not fully understood. This review provides a comprehensive insight into cell susceptibilities and molecular targets of UCB in neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, and on phenotypic and functional responses of microglia to UCB. Interplay among glia elements and cross-talk with neurons, with a special emphasis in the UCB-induced immunostimulation, and the role of sepsis in BIND pathogenesis are highlighted. New and interesting data on the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of different pharmacological agents are also presented, as novel and promising additional therapeutic approaches to BIND.
    Frontiers in Pharmacology 01/2012; 3:88.
  • Source
    The Korean Journal of Parasitology 01/2014; 48(1):15-21. · 0.88 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 31, 2014