Application of different methods for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis in a dairy cattle herd in Argentina.
ABSTRACT Paratuberculosis (Ptbc) has a high prevalence in Argentina, that affects dairy and beef cattle. The culture is the gold standard to the diagnosis of the disease. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis), the aetiological agent, is difficult to isolate and grow in culture. In this study, 24 randomly selected cows of the Fresian breed from a dairy herd with a history of Ptbc were used to evaluate the performance of different diagnostic techniques. These animals did not show clinical signs of the disease. However, another animal from this herd presented evidence of clinical disease at the moment of the present study. This animal was necropsied and one strain of M. paratuberculosis was isolated from faeces, lymph nodes and intestine. Serum for indirect absorbed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) tests and whole blood samples to perform gamma interferon (gammaIFN) release assays were obtained from each animal. Faeces and milk samples to carry out bacteriological cultures, PCR identification of M. paratuberculosis, and direct examinations of smears with Ziehl-Neelsen's (ZN) stain were also collected. Tuberculin test with bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) in the caudal fold was performed. The results showed that 10 out of 24 animals (41.6%) were positive to ELISA. Eight strains of M. paratuberculosis were isolated, six from faeces, two from milk. Five of the animals that excreted the bacteria through faeces were ELISA-positive, whereas the excreters through milk were negative to ELISA. No positive samples by AGID were obtained in clinical asymptomatic animals. Seven samples gave positive gammaIFN results with avian PPD, but only two of these animals were confirmed with culture. Direct PCR, to detect IS900 (M. paratuberculosis) in faeces and milk samples, was negative, but PCR using material taken from faecal and milk cultures gave positive results before visualizing the colonies. No sample was positive by PCR directed to IS6110 (M. tuberculosis complex). There was not always agreement between isolations and ZN in the studied samples. In conclusion, the absorbed ELISA was useful to detect positive animals and excreters through faeces but not through milk. PCR applied to cultures with incipient development before the visualization of colonies was effective to specifically determine the presence of M. paratuberculosis. The gammaIFN test was not able to detect the most positive animals confirmed by culture. The importance of using ELISA and cultures is emphasized by this study but it is necessary to continue with the gammaIFN test development for early detection of the disease.
Article: Detection of Bovine IgG Isotypes in a PPA-ELISA for Johne's Disease Diagnosis in Infected Herds.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Johne's Disease or Paratuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous enteritis disease affecting ruminants. Detection of subclinically infected animals is difficult, hampering the control of this disease. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of detection of IgG isotypes in a PPA-ELISA to improve the recognition of cattle naturally infected with Map in different stages. A total of 108 animals from Tuberculosis-free herds were grouped as follows: exposed (n = 30), subclinically infected (n = 26), clinically infected (n = 14), and healthy controls (n = 38). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves of isotypes/PPA-ELISAs were constructed and areas under the curves were compared to evaluate the performance of each test. Our study demonstrated that the conventional PPA-ELISA (detecting IgG) is the best to identify clinically infected animals with high sensitivity (92.9%) and specificity (100%). Meanwhile, IgG2/PPA-ELISA improved the number of subclinically infected cattle detected as compared with conventional IgG/PPA-ELISA (53.8 versus 23.1%). In addition, it had the maximum sensitivity (65.0%, taking into account all Map-infected cattle). In conclusion, the combination of IgG and IgG2/PPA-ELISAs may improve the identification of Map-infected cattle in different stages of disease. The usefulness of IgG2 detection in serological tests for Johne's Disease diagnosis should be further evaluated.Veterinary medicine international. 01/2012; 2012:145318.
Article: Bovine paratuberculosis: a review of the advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic tests.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Paratuberculosis (PTB), or Johne's disease, is a chronic infectious granulomatous enteritis of ruminants, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map). It is characterized by diarrhea and progressive cachexia, which may cause the death of the animal. Calves are the most susceptible to infection. Infected animals excrete Map mainly by the feces. PTB is endemic worldwide, with high prevalence levels, strong economic impact and public health relevance because of its possible association with Crohn's disease. Although the current reference diagnostic test is identification of Map in the bacterial culture, there are different diagnostic tests to identify infected individuals and/or herds. The sensitivity and specificity of these tests vary according to the stage of the disease in the animals to be evaluated. The correct choice and application of each of these diagnostic tests will ensure their success and may allow to establish a control program. The aim of this work is to review and discuss the different diagnostic tests used in the detection of Map-infected animals, focusing on their advantages and disadvantages.Revista Argentina de microbiología 07/2012; 44(3):201-215. · 0.50 Impact Factor
Dataset: Gilardoni et al 11-050 pags 201-215