Application of prebiotics and probiotics in poultry production

Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.
Poultry Science (Impact Factor: 1.67). 05/2003; 82(4):627-31. DOI: 10.1093/ps/82.4.627
Source: PubMed


The intestinal microbiota, epithelium, and immune system provide resistance to enteric pathogens. Recent data suggest that resistance is not solely due to the sum of the components, but that cross-talk between these components is also involved in modulating this resistance. Inhibition of pathogens by the intestinal microbiota has been called bacterial antagonism, bacterial interference, barrier effect, colonization resistance, and competitive exclusion. Mechanisms by which the indigenous intestinal bacteria inhibit pathogens include competition for colonization sites, competition for nutrients, production of toxic compounds, or stimulation of the immune system. These mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, and inhibition may comprise one, several, or all of these mechanisms. Consumption of fermented foods has been associated with improved health, and lactic acid bacteria (lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) have been implicated as the causative agents for this improved health. Research over the last century has shown that lactic acid bacteria and certain other microorganisms can increase resistance to disease and that lactic acid bacteria can be enriched in the intestinal tract by feeding specific carbohydrates. Increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics in humans has caused an increase in public and governmental interest in eliminating sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics in livestock. An alternative approach to sub-therapeutic antibiotics in livestock is the use of probiotic microorganisms, prebiotic substrates that enrich certain bacterial populations, or synbiotic combinations of prebiotics and probiotics. Research is focused on identifying beneficial bacterial strains and substrates along with the conditions under which they are effective.

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    • "In the chickens' gastro intestinal tract (GIT) the number and variety of bacteria are highest in the ceca (10 10 –10 11 cells/g) (Barnes et al., 1972; Bjerrum et al., 2006). The cecal microbiome plays an important role in fermentation processes and production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) (Patterson and Burkholder, 2003; Rehman et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Microbiota in the gastro-intestinal tract are closely related to both the intestinal and overall health of the host. Experimental chickens have always been euthanized in order to identify and quantify the bacteria in cecal content. In this study, quantification and identification of the microbial populations in cecal drop, cecal content and fecal drop samples from chickens showed that cecal drop contains a bacterial community that is very similar (concerning bacterial diversity, richness and species composition) to cecal content, as opposed to the bacterial community found in fecal drop. Cecal drop analysis thus allows for longitudinal experiments on chickens' cecal bacteria. The varying results in the analysis of fecal samples questions the method's reliability in reflecting the true cecal microbiota in chickens. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of microbiological methods 08/2015; 117. DOI:10.1016/j.mimet.2015.08.006 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    • "Inoculating 1-d old chicks with competitive exclusion cultures or more classical probiotics serves as a nice model for determining the modes of action and efficacy of these microorganisms. Because of the susceptibility of 1-d-old chicks to infection, this practice is also of commercial importance (Patterson and Burkholder, 2003). Selim et al., (2009) reported that CE orally gavaged to newly hatched chicks (only once) was more efficient in promoting good performance and balanced intestinal microbial ecology in favour of the beneficial bacteria than commercial probiotic preparations that may lack the compatibility with the management conditions prevailed. "
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    DESCRIPTION: This study was initiated with the aim of comparing the growth performance, immunity response and the change in duodenum microbiota of Arbor Acres broiler chicks that maintained during summer season with providing two distinguished sources of beneficial micro-organisms that were self developed undefined anaerobic culture isolated from the digestive tract of adult healthy broilers (competitive exclusion; CE) and commercial probiotic based on some Bacillus spp bacteria. Two hundred 1-day-old unsexed chicks (averaged 41 g), divided equally into five groups of four replicates each, were reared during June-August months and had the same managerial procedures throughout the growth trial term. Experimental groups were ordered according to the following regime: G1: A control group was fed the basal diet without treatment, G2: One dose oral gavage with 1 ml (1 x 1010 cfu) of CE/chick administrated at day-1 post-hatch within 6 hours after chicks had been arrived to the farm, G3: Two doses oral gavage with CE/chick (1 x 1010 cfu, each), administrated twice; 1st time at day-1 post-hatch within 6 hours after chicks had been arrived to the farm and another repeated dose (1 x 1010 cfu/ml) at day 11 of age, G4: was fed on the basal diet supplemented with Microguard (0.1 g/kg diet), only during starter period and then chicks were switched to the control diets during grower and finisher periods and G5: was fed on the basal diets supplemented with Microguard (0.1 g/kg diet) during starter and grower and not during finisher feeding.
    • "The new definition of a prebiotic is 'a nondigestible compound that, through its metabolization by microorganisms in the gut, modulates composition and/or activity of the gut microbiota, thus conferring a beneficial physiological effect on the host' (Bindels et al. 2015). While effects of prebiotics on poultry production parameters have been well reviewed (Patterson and Burkholder 2003; Barry et al. 2009; Gagg`ıa, Mattarelli and Biavati 2010), much less has been documented concerning their impact on the gut microbiota and host immunity. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have provided a more in-depth insight into bacterial diversity and allowed the study of microbiota– immune system interactions. "
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    ABSTRACT: Prebiotics are non-digestible feed ingredients that are metabolized by specific members of intestinal microbiota and provide health benefits for the host. Fermentable oligosaccharides are best known prebiotics that have received increasing attention in poultry production. They act through diverse mechanisms, such as providing nutrients, preventing pathogen adhesion to host cells, interacting with host immune systems and affecting gut morphological structure, all presumably through modulation of intestinal microbiota. Currently, fructo-oligosaccharides, inulin and mannan oligosaccharides have shown promising results while other prebiotic candidates such as xylo-oligosaccharides are still at an early development stage. Despite a growing body of evidence reporting health benefits of prebiotics in chickens, very limited studies have been conducted to directly link health improvements to prebiotic-dependent changes in the gut microbiota. This article visits the current knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiota and reviews most recent publications related to the roles played by prebiotics in modulation of the gut microbiota and immune functions. Progress in this field will help us better understand how the gut microbiota contributes to poultry health and productivity, and support the development of new prebiotic products as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 07/2015; 362(15). DOI:10.1093/femsle/fnv122 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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