Phenolic compounds from Nymphaea odorata
ABSTRACT Assay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of Nymphaea odorata resulted in the identification of two lignans, one new (1) and one known (2), together with six known flavonol glycosides (3-8). The structures of 1-8 were established by spectroscopic analysis as nymphaeoside A (1), icariside E(4) (2), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside (afzelin, 3), quercetin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside (4), myricetin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside (myricitrin, 5), quercetin 3-O-(6' '-O-acetyl)-beta-d-galactopyranoside (6), myricetin 3-O-beta-d-galactopyranoside (7), and myricetin 3-O-(6' '-O-acetyl)-beta-d-galactopyranoside (8). Compounds 3, 4, and 7 showed marginal inhibitory effect against fatty acid synthase with IC(50) values of 45, 50, and 25 microg/mL, respectively.
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have revealed that a diet rich in plant-derived foods has a protective effect on human health. Identifying bioactive dietary constituents is an active area of scientific investigation that may lead to new drug discovery. Kaempferol (3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) is a flavonoid found in many edible plants (e.g. tea, broccoli, cabbage, kale, beans, endive, leek, tomato, strawberries and grapes) and in plants or botanical products commonly used in traditional medicine (e.g. Ginkgo biloba, Tilia spp, Equisetum spp, Moringa oleifera, Sophora japonica and propolis). Some epidemiological studies have found a positive association between the consumption of foods containing kaempferol and a reduced risk of developing several disorders such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Numerous preclinical studies have shown that kaempferol and some glycosides of kaempferol have a wide range of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, anti-osteoporotic, estrogenic/antiestrogenic, anxiolytic, analgesic and antiallergic activities. In this article, the distribution of kaempferol in the plant kingdom and its pharmacological properties are reviewed. The pharmacokinetics (e.g. oral bioavailability, metabolism, plasma levels) and safety of kaempferol are also analyzed. This information may help understand the health benefits of kaempferol-containing plants and may contribute to develop this flavonoid as a possible agent for the prevention and treatment of some diseases.Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry 03/2011; 11(4):298-344. DOI:10.2174/138955711795305335 · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinases (IP3K) A, B, and C as well as inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) catalyze the first step in the formation of the higher phosphorylated inositols InsP5 and InsP6 by metabolizing Ins(1,4,5)P3 to Ins(1,3,4,5)P4. In order to clarify the special role of these InsP3 phosphorylating enzymes and of subsequent anabolic inositol phosphate reactions, a search was conducted for potent enzyme inhibitors starting with a fully active IP3K-A catalytic domain. Seven polyphenolic compounds could be identified as potent inhibitors with IC50 < 200 nM (IC50 given): ellagic acid (36 nM), gossypol (58 nM), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (94 nM), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, 120 nM), aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA, 150 nM), hypericin (170 nM), and quercetin (180 nM). All inhibitors displayed a mixed-type inhibition with respect to ATP and a non-competitive inhibition with respect to Ins(1,4,5)P3. Examination of these inhibitors toward IP3K-A, -B, and -C and IPMK from mammals revealed that ATA potently inhibits all kinases while the other inhibitors do not markedly affect IPMK but differentially inhibit IP3K isoforms. We identified chlorogenic acid as a specific IPMK inhibitor whereas the flavonoids myricetin, 3',4',7,8-tetrahydroxyflavone and EGCG inhibit preferentially IP3K-A and IP3K-C. Mutagenesis studies revealed that both the calmodulin binding and the ATP [corrected] binding domain in IP3K are involved in inhibitor binding. Their absence in IPMK and the presence of a unique insertion in IPMK were found to be important for selectivity differences from IP3K. The fact that all identified IP3K and IPMK inhibitors have been reported as antiproliferative agents and that IP3Ks or IPMK often are the best binding targets deserves further investigation concerning their antitumor potential.Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2005; 280(14):13229-40. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M500545200 · 4.60 Impact Factor