Tetralogy of Fallot in a 2-year-old Holstein heifer

Department of Health Management, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Drive, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island C1A 4P3.
The Canadian veterinary journal. La revue veterinaire canadienne (Impact Factor: 0.52). 05/2003; 44(4):312-3.
Source: PubMed


A 2-year-old, purebred Holstein heifer with exercise intolerance and cardiovascular compromise was diagnosed at postmortem with tetralogy of Fallot, which typically results in death within a few months of life. Survival past the age of 2 was unexpected. The concurrent endocarditis of the pulmonic valve is discussed.

Download full-text


Available from: Herman Wildrik Barkema, Sep 09, 2015
4 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The 5th edition of Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer's Pathology of Domestic Animals continues the long tradition of this classic set of volumes as the most comprehensive reference book published on the topic of pathology of the common domestic mammals, with emphasis on disease conditions of cattle and small ruminants, swine, horses, dogs and cats. Using a body systems approach, recognized authorities in their fields provide overviews of general characteristics of the system, reactions to insult, and disease conditions broken down by type of infectious or toxic insult affecting the anatomical subdivisions of each body system. Since the publication of the 4th edition in 1993, much has changed. Disease agents, such as Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 2, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Porcine circovirus 2, Hendra virus, and Leptospira spp., have emerged or further evolved. Molecular-based testing, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in-situ hybridization, have allowed further understanding of pathogenesis of disease, and have greatly furthered our diagnostic capabilities. Thoroughly revised text, including new or evolving pathogens and new diagnostic techniques. Over 250 new illustrations. Maintains the currency of the text, assists the reader in putting new conditions into perspective. Updating of the Bibliography on each subject gives readers new entry points into the rapidly expanding literature on each subject. Illustrations of new conditions or agents. Reader-friendliness improved through highlighting of text, bullet-point lists, italics, diagnostic hints.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It was an honor to be asked by Drs. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer to assume the editorship of Pathology of Domestic Animals. I studied from the first edition in Saskatoon as a DVM student, used the second edition as a working pathologist, and encouraged production of, and contributed to, the third and fourth editions. I'm delighted to have been able to be part of this continuum. In this age of instantaneous global communication and virtually universal access to databases through powerful search engines, does the need continue for such print versions of textbooks? I firmly believe that printed books continue to serve a useful function, partly through their portability and ease of use, but primarily through provision of a measured overview of important topics, with the relevance of competing topics put into perspective by authorities in the field. In particular, this latest edition of these volumes is offered as a comprehensive, and we hope beneficial, overview of the diseases of the major domestic mammals.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Double outlet right ventricle is a conotruncal malformation where both great arteries (aorta and pulmonary trunk) arise from the right ventricle. A 2-month-old Holstein calf was slaughtered due to severe respiratory distress. At necropsy, the heart was enlarged, globose, and had ventricular and atrial septal defects. The only outlet for the left ventricle was a large ventricular septal defect located at 6cm distance from the heart apex and involved atrial septum too. The right ventricle was enlarged and markedly thickened with a left to right free wall ratio of 2.5:2 and prominent papillary muscles. The aorta arose from the right ventricular infundibulum adjacent to pulmonary trunk. Two valvular hematomas were observed on the edge of the right atrioventricular valve. The lungs were rubbery with ecchymotic and petechial hemorrhages and did not collapse after removing from thoracic cavity. Enhanced lobular pattern was evident on both the capsular and cut surfaces of the liver. Histopathological examination of the lungs revealed thickening of alveolar septa, hemorrhages, and infiltration of hemosiderophages within alveoli. Periportal hepatocellular fatty changes, substitution of centrilobular and midzonal hepatocytes by red blood cells, and dilation of midzonal and periportal sinusoids were seen in the liver. To our knowledge, this particular combination of cardiac defects has not been previously described in domestic animals and the pathological lesions observed in the calf may be resulted as a sequel to left–right blood shunting and heart failure.
    Comparative Clinical Pathology 05/2009; 18(2):187-189. DOI:10.1007/s00580-008-0771-x · 0.37 Impact Factor
Show more