Metabolism of stearidonic acid in human subjects:comparison with the metabolism of other n-3 fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr
ABSTRACT For many persons who wish to obtain the health benefits provided by dietary n-3 fatty acids, daily ingestion of fish or fish oil is not a sustainable long-term approach. To increase the number of sustainable dietary options, a land-based source of n-3 fatty acids that is effective in increasing tissue concentrations of the long-chain n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is required.
The objective of the study was to examine the ability of dietary stearidonic acid (SDA) to increase tissue concentrations of EPA and DHA in healthy human subjects and to compare the effectiveness of SDA with that of the n-3 fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and EPA.
Encapsulated SDA, ALA, or EPA was ingested daily in doses of 0.75 g and then 1.5 g for periods of 3 wk each by healthy male and postmenopausal female subjects (n = 15/group) in a double-blind, parallel-group design.
Dietary SDA increased EPA and docosapentaenoic acid concentrations but not DHA concentrations in erythrocyte and in plasma phospholipids. The relative effectiveness of the tested dietary fatty acids in increasing tissue EPA was 1:0.3:0.07 for EPA:SDA:ALA.
Vegetable oils containing SDA could be a dietary source of n-3 fatty acids that would be more effective in increasing tissue EPA concentrations than are current ALA-containing vegetable oils. The use of SDA-containing oils in food manufacture could provide a wide range of dietary alternatives for increasing tissue EPA concentrations.
- SourceAvailable from: David M Mutch
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- "In view of the very limited bioconversion of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3) to DHA, averaging 3.5% in adults, recent clinical trials have focused on the potential benefits of supplementation with preformed DHA. It is noted that the desaturation product of ALA is stearidonic acid (18:4 n-3), and it is now found in some genetically modified seeds and oils and gives a 3–4-fold greater rise in blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) when compared with ALA (James et al. 2003) after a few weeks of daily feeding (without any increase in circulating DHA). Makrides et al. (2010) observed a significantly lower prevalence of preterm babies, low birth weight infants, and admission of newborns to intensive care by 52%, 36%, and 45%, respectively, when the pregnant mothers were supplemented with 800 mg of DHA (plus 100 mg of EPA) daily over 21 weeks of gestation compared with the placebo group. "
ABSTRACT: The science of lipid research continues to rapidly evolve and change. New knowledge enhances our understanding and perspectives on the role of lipids in health and nutrition. However, new knowledge also challenges currently held opinions. The following are the proceedings of the 2013 Canadian Nutrition Society Conference on the Advances in Dietary Fats and Nutrition. Content experts presented state-of-the-art information regarding our understanding of fish oil and plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, nutrigenomics, pediatrics, regulatory affairs, and trans fats. These important contributions aim to provide clarity on the latest advances and opinions regarding the role of different types of fats in health.Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 01/2014; DOI:10.1139/apnm-2013-0418 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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- "This transgenic stack resulted in accumulation of 18 per cent and 23 per cent, GLA and SDA respectively. Partial conversion of dietary SDA to EPA, has been shown in human and Atlantic salmon (James et al., 2003; Miller et al., 2007), but, higher levels of EPA accumulation were observed with diets containing oils enriched in EPA rather than SDA (James et al., 2003). Similarly, DHA levels in Atlantic salmon were enhanced with a fish oil-based diet that is rich in EPA and DHA (Miller et al., 2007). "
ABSTRACT: Most of the major oilseed crops have been modified through genetic engineering and majority of the genetically modified (GM) oilseed crops produced to date contain herbicide tolerance or insect resistance input traits. However, genetic manipulation in fatty acids of oilseed crops has the greatest potential. The nutritional and physical qualities of oils are determined by the fatty acid composition of the oil, and in recent years there has been substantial interest in modifying fatty acid composition of vegetable oils with improved health benefits, better performance in cooking applications, and oils that may be used in a variety of different industries. Globally, consumers prefer vegetable oils because of lower content of saturated fatty acid. The oleochemical industries require higher concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids while hydroxylated oils are required for use in lubricants, paints and polymers. Likewise, lower PUFAs are also desired to reduce the level of trans-isomer in hydrogenated food ingredients. Oilseeds are also a good source of protein for human and animals but suffer from some essential amino acids and/or some anti-nutritional substances. Thus, there are many reasons which warrant the fatty acid alteration of oils and improvement of protein quality. Efforts are now underway in different countries to produce specialized ‘designer’ oilseed crops. In this review, we will discuss fatty acid alteration and protein quality improvement in soybean, rapeseed, cottonseed and groundnut through conventional as well as genetic engineering approaches.Recent Advances in Crop Physiology, Vol. 1 edited by Dr. Amrit Lal Singh, 12/2013: chapter Chapter 10: pages 359-393; Daya Publishing House., ISBN: Indian: 978-93-5124-276-5, International: 978-93-5130-196-7
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- "An interest in the nutritional importance of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has increased markedly in recent years. As the importance of the presence and proportions of various PUFAs in human and animal diets becomes better understood (Horrocks and Yeo 1999; Simopoulos 1999; James et al. 2003), demand for, and hence the value of, these dietary components is expected to increase further. At present, fish oils and cultured phototrophic microalgae are the main commercial sources of PUFA. "
ABSTRACT: Marine microheterotrophs thraustochytrids are emerging as a potential source for commercial production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that have nutritional and pharmacological values. With prospective demand for PUFAs increasing, biotechnological companies are looking for potential increases in those valuable products. However, high levels of NaCl in the culture media required for optimal thraustochytrid growth and PUFA production poses a significant problem to the biotechnological industry due to corrosion of fermenters calling for a need to reduce the amount of NaCl in the culture media, without imposing penalties on growth and yield of cultured organisms. Earlier, as reported by Shabala et al. (Environ Microbiol 11:1835-1843, 2009), we have shown that thraustochytrids use sodium predominantly for osmotic adjustment purposes and, as such, can be grown in low-salt environment without growth penalties, providing the media osmolality is adjusted. In this study, we verify if that conclusion, made for one specific strain and osmolyte only, is applicable to the larger number of strains and organic osmotica, as well as address the issue of yield quality (e.g., PUFA production in low-saline media). Using mannitol and sucrose for osmotic adjustment of the growth media enabled us to reduce NaCl concentration down to 1 mM; this is 15-100-fold lower than any method proposed so far. At the same time, the yield of essential PUFAs was increased by 15 to 20 %. Taken together, these results suggest that the proposed method can be used in industrial fermenters for commercial PUFA production.Marine Biotechnology 04/2013; 15(4). DOI:10.1007/s10126-013-9499-y · 3.15 Impact Factor