Genetic polymorphism of drug-metabolizing enzymes and styrene-induced DNA damage.
ABSTRACT A cross-sectional study was carried out on 48 workers exposed to styrene and 14 unexposed healthy controls in order to investigate the genotoxic potential of styrene exposure. DNA damage was assessed in peripheral blood leukocytes (WBCs) by the comet assay. Polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1) and the gene encoding microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX) were characterized to assess their possible modifying role in styrene metabolism and subsequent DNA damage. Exposed workers showed significantly higher levels of DNA damage compared to controls. Among workers, the GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms significantly affected comet parameters. Subjects bearing a GSTM1pos genotype showed a significantly higher proportion of damaged nuclei compared to people lacking GSTM1-1 expression (GSTM1null), whereas GSTT1pos workers showed significantly lower DNA damage than GSTT1null individuals. Styrene-7,8-oxide (SO)-induced DNA damage was assessed in vitro in WBCs isolated from the healthy controls. A clear dose-response relationship at micromolar doses of SO was found for the whole group. WBCs collected from subjects bearing the homozygous wildtype GSTP1 genotype showed a significant protection compared to cells from subjects bearing at least one GSTP1 variant allele. The field survey confirms that styrene exposure is associated with increased DNA damage and indicates a modulating role for GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes. In vitro experiments suggest that the extent of SO-induced DNA strand breaks depends, at least in part, on interindividual differences in GSH-conjugation capabilities.
- Analytical Biochemistry 05/1996; 236(1):184-6. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The role of polymorphic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the interindividual variability of phenylhydroxyethyl mercapturic acids (PHEMAs) was investigated in 56 styrene-exposed workers. Ambient monitoring was carried out using passive personal samplers (geometric mean, 157 mg/m3 8-h time-weighted average; geometric standard deviation, 2.90). Biomonitoring was based on mandelic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid in urine spot samples collected at the end of the work shift ("end-of-shift") and prior to the subsequent shift ("next morning"). Four PHEMA diastereoisomers, namely (R,R)-M1, (S,R)-M1, (S,R)-M2, and (R,R)-M2, were determined by HPLC/tandem mass spectrometry. The genotypes of glutathione S-transferases M1-1 (GSTM1), T1-1 (GSTT1) and P1-1 (GSTP1), and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX) were characterized by PCR-based methods. Workers bearing the GSTM1pos genotype showed PHEMA concentrations five and six times higher (in end-of-shift and next-morning samples, respectively) as compared to GSTM1null people. In GSTM1pos subjects, (R,R)-M1 was the main mercapturate affected by the GSTM1 status, accounting for 54 and 68% of total PHEMAs in end-of-shift and next-morning samples, respectively. Compared to GSTM1null, GSTM1pos subjects excreted more -M1 than -M2 and more (R,R)-M1 and (S,R)-M2 than (S,R)-M1 and (R,R)-M2 diastereoisomers. Thus, GSTM1-1 is the main isoenzyme catalyzing GSH-conjugation of styrene-7,8-oxide in humans and it seems to act in a regio- and stereoselective way. PHEMAs cannot be recommended as biomarkers of exposure to styrene, unless the GSTM1 genotype is considered in data interpretation. Their role as biomarkers of susceptibility deserves further studies.Chemical Research in Toxicology 11/2001; 14(10):1393-400. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Styrene is an industrial solvent which is mainly oxidized by cytochrome P450 to an electrophilic, chiral epoxide metabolite: styrene-7,8-oxide (SO). SO has cytotoxic and genotoxic properties; the (R)-enantiomer is more mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 in the Ames test than the (S)-enantiomer. Detoxication proceeds via microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH). Interindividual differences in mEH activity as well as differences in mEH enantioselectivity are important factors for toxic effects of SO. To study the extent of the interindividual variation, microsomal preparations of 20 human livers were incubated with (R)- and (S)-SO separately (1-2000 microM) and Michaelis-Menten kinetics were determined. In addition, samples were genotyped for two genetic polymorphisms of the mEH gene. V(max), K(m) and V(max)/K(m) values of both enantiomers differed three- to fivefold between the livers. No association of the enzyme constants with the genetic polymorphisms of the epoxide hydrolase gene was found. Hydrolysis of the styrene oxide enantiomers proceeded in an enantioselective manner, with the (S)-enantiomer having an approximately six times higher K(m) and five times higher V(max) than the (R)-enantiomer. In vivo, both SO enantiomers are formed; therefore, time course incubations with racemic SO were carried out in vitro to investigate possible interactions between the enantiomers. When racemic SO was used as a substrate, the (R)-enantiomer acted as an inhibitor on the hydrolysis of the (S)-enantiomer. These results indicate that mEH-mediated hydrolysis of SO is subject to appreciable interindividual variation and that hydrolysis of the more toxic enantiomer is favored.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 12/2000; 169(1):52-8. · 3.98 Impact Factor