The Ac-RGD-NH2 peptide as a probe of slow conformational exchange of short linear peptides in DMSO

Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, Greece.
Biopolymers (Impact Factor: 2.39). 05/2003; 69(1):72-86. DOI: 10.1002/bip.10335
Source: PubMed


According to general belief, the conformational information on short linear peptides in solution derived at ambient temperature from NMR spectrometry represents a population-weighted average over all members of an ensemble of rapidly interconverting conformations. Usually the search for discrete conformations is concentrated at low temperatures especially when sharp NMR resonances are detected at room temperature. Using the peptide Ac-RGD-NH(2) (Ac-Arg-Gly-Asp-NH(2), Ac: acetyl) as a model system and following a new approach, we have been able to demonstrate that short linear peptides can adopt discrete conformational states in DMSO-d(6) (DMSO: dimethylsulfoxide) which vary in a way critically dependent on the reconstitution conditions used before their dissolution in DMSO-d(6). The conformers are stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonds, which persist at high temperatures and undergo a very slow exchange with their extended structures in the NMR chemical shift time scale. The reported findings provide clear evidence for the occurrence of solvent-induced conformational exchange and point to DMSO as a valuable medium for folding studies of short linear peptides.

6 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chemical exchange in NMR spectra was discussed. In solids, a richness of the interactions was present that led to many unusual effects. It was concluded that with modern spectrometers, fast computers and good software, the dynamics can be analyzed quite easily.
    Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 12/2003; 43(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pnmrs.2003.08.001 · 7.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ability of an integrin to distinguish between the RGD-containing extracellular matrix proteins is thought to be due partially to the variety of RGD conformations. Three criteria have been proposed for the evaluation of the structure-activity relationship of RGD-containing peptides. These include: (i) the distance between the charged centres, (ii) the distance between the Arg Cbeta and Asp Cbeta atoms, and (iii) the pseudo-dihedral angle defining the Arg and Asp side-chain orientation formed by the Arg Czeta, Arg Calpha, Asp Calpha and Asp Cgamma atoms. A comparative conformation-activity study was performed between linear RGD peptides and strongly constrained cyclic (S,S) -CDC- bearing compounds, which cover a wide range of inhibition potency of platelet aggregation. It is concluded that the fulfilment of the -45 degrees < or = pseudo-dihedral angle < or = +45 degrees criterion is a prerequisite for an RGD compound to exhibit inhibitory activity. Once this criterion is accomplished, the longer the distance between the charged centres and/or between the Arg and Asp Cbeta atoms, the higher is the biological activity. In addition, the stronger the ionic interaction between Arg and Asp charged side chains, the lower the anti-aggregatory activity.
    Journal of Peptide Science 08/2004; 10(8):494-509. DOI:10.1002/psc.559 · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Arg-Gly-Asp RGD motif of adhesive proteins is recognized by the activated platelet integrin alpha(IIb)beta3. Binding of fibrinogen (Fg) to activated alpha(IIb)beta3 causes platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. Highly constraint cyclic (S,S) -CXaaC- containing peptides incorporating the (S,S) -CDC- and (S,S) -CRC- motifs were tested for their ability to inhibit platelet aggregation and Fg binding. Our results suggest that the above cyclic scaffolds stabilize a favorable structure for the antiaggregatory activity (IC50-values ranged from 1.7 to 570 microm). The peptides inhibited Fg binding with IC50-values up to 30-fold lower than those determined for the inhibition of the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation. Importantly, peptides (S,S) PSRCDCR-NH2 (peptide 11) and (S,S) PRCDCK-NH2 (peptide 10) did not inhibit PAC-1 binding to the activated platelets at a concentration in which they completely inhibited Fg binding. Moreover, (S,S) PSRCDCR-NH(2) (peptide 11), one of the more active peptides, inhibited ADP-induced P-selectin exposure. By contrast, peptide (S,S) Ac-RWDCRC-NH2, incorporating the inverse (S,S) -DCRC- sequence (peptide 16), failed to inhibit P-selectin exposure whereas at the same concentration, it effectively inhibited PAC-1 and Fg binding. It is concluded that peptides containing the (S,S) -CDC- as well the (S,S) -CRC- sequences, exhibit a broad range of activities toward platelets, and could be helpful tools for elucidating the structural interaction of Fg with the integrin receptor alpha(IIb)beta3, in its activated form. Furthermore, the (S,S) -RCDC- sequence can be used as a scaffold for developing potent non-RGD-like Fg-binding inhibitors.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 11/2005; 3(10):2324-30. DOI:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2005.01487.x · 5.72 Impact Factor
Show more