Short-term and long-term survival of new neurons in the rat dentate gyrus.
ABSTRACT New neurons continue to be generated in the dentate gyrus throughout adulthood. Previous studies have shown that a significant proportion of new granule cells labeled with the thymidine analogue bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) are lost from the adult dentate gyrus within 2 weeks. How long this loss continues and the extent to which it represents cell death, as opposed to dilution of label, is unclear. To address these questions, adult rats were injected with BrdU, and BrdU labeling in the dentate gyrus was compared at several survival time points. Double labeling with BrdU and the cell cycle marker Ki-67 showed that BrdU is detectable for up to 4 days in some cells that continue to divide, indicating that any decrease in the number of BrdU-labeled cells after 4 days is likely to reflect cell death rather than BrdU dilution. Death of new cells in the granule cell layer occurred at a steady rate between 6 and 28 days after labeling, resulting in loss of 50% of BrdU-labeled cells over this 22-day period. New granule cells that survived this first month lived for at least 5 additional months. In contrast, 26% of the granule cells labeled with BrdU at the peak of dentate gyrus development on postnatal day (P) 6 died between 1 and 6 months after labeling. These findings suggest that granule cells born during adulthood that become integrated into circuits and survive to maturity are very stable and may permanently replace granule cells born during development.
Article: Complementary activation of hippocampal-cortical subregions and immature neurons following chronic training in single and multiple context versions of the water maze.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neurobiological studies of memory typically involve single learning sessions that last minutes or days. In natural settings, however, animals are constantly learning. Here we investigated how several weeks of spatial water maze training influences subsequent activation of neocortical and hippocampal subregions, including adult-born neurons. Mice were either trained in a single context or in a variant of the task in which the spatial cues and platform location changed every 3 days, requiring constant new learning. On the final day, half of the mice in each training group were tested in a novel context and the other half were tested in their previous, familiar context. Two hours later mice were perfused to measure subregion-specific expression of the immediate-early gene zif268, a marker of neuronal activation. None of the training paradigms affected the magnitude of adult neurogenesis. However, different neuronal populations were activated depending on prior training history, final context novelty, or a combination of these 2 factors. The anterior cingulate cortex was more activated by novel context exposure, regardless of the type of prior training. The suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus and region CA3 showed greater activation in mice trained in multiple contexts, primarily after exposure to a familiar context. In immature granule neurons, multiple context training enhanced activation regardless of final context novelty. CA1 showed no significant changes in zif268 expression across any training condition. In naïve control mice, training on the final day increased zif268 expression in CA3, CA1 and the anterior cingulate cortex, but not the dentate gyrus, relative to mice that remained in their cages (transport controls). Unexpectedly, immature granule cells showed a decrease in zif268 expression in naïve learners relative to transport controls. These findings suggest novel and complementary roles for hippocampal, neocortical, and immature neuronal populations in learning and memory.Behavioural brain research 06/2011; 227(2):330-9. · 3.22 Impact Factor
Article: Enhancement of endogenous neurogenesis in ephrin-B3 deficient mice after transient focal cerebral ischemia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cerebral ischemia stimulates endogenous neurogenesis. However, the functional relevance of this phenomenon remains unclear because of poor survival and low neuronal differentiation rates of newborn cells. Therefore, further studies on mechanisms regulating neurogenesis under ischemic conditions are required, among which ephrin-ligands and ephrin-receptors (Eph) are an interesting target. Although Eph/ephrin proteins like ephrin-B3 are known to negatively regulate neurogenesis under physiological conditions, their role in cerebral ischemia is largely unknown. We therefore studied neurogenesis, brain injury and functional outcome in ephrin-B3(-/-) (knockout) and ephrin-B3(+/+) (wild-type) mice submitted to cerebral ischemia. Induction of stroke resulted in enhanced cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation around the lesion site of ephrin-B3(-/-) compared to ephrin-B3(+/+) mice. However, prominent post-ischemic neurogenesis in ephrin-B3(-/-) mice was accompanied by significantly increased ischemic injury and motor coordination deficits that persisted up to 4 weeks. Ischemic injury in ephrin-B3(-/-) mice was associated with a caspase-3-dependent activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). Whereas inhibition of caspase-3 had no effect on brain injury in ephrin-B3(+/+) animals, infarct size in ephrin-B3(-/-) mice was strongly reduced, suggesting that aggravated brain injury in these animals might involve a caspase-3-dependent activation of STAT1. In conclusion, post-ischemic neurogenesis in ephrin-B3(-/-) mice is strongly enhanced, but fails to contribute to functional recovery because of caspase-3-mediated aggravation of ischemic injury in these animals. Our results suggest that ephrin-B3 might be an interesting target for overcoming some of the limitations of further cell-based therapies in stroke.Acta Neuropathologica 07/2011; 122(4):429-42. · 9.32 Impact Factor
Article: Impact of treadmill running and sex on hippocampal neurogenesis in the mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hippocampal neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of dentate gyrus (DG) occurs throughout life and is regulated by pathological and physiological processes. The role of oxidative stress in hippocampal neurogenesis and its response to exercise or neurodegenerative diseases remains controversial. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of oxidative stress, treadmill exercise and sex on hippocampal neurogenesis in a murine model of heightened oxidative stress (G93A mice). G93A and wild type (WT) mice were randomized to a treadmill running (EX) or a sedentary (SED) group for 1 or 4 wk. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeled proliferating cells, surviving cells, and their phenotype, as well as for determination of oxidative stress (3-NT; 8-OHdG). BDNF and IGF1 mRNA expression was assessed by in situ hybridization. Results showed that: (1) G93A-SED mice had greater hippocampal neurogenesis, BDNF mRNA, and 3-NT, as compared to WT-SED mice. (2) Treadmill running promoted hippocampal neurogenesis and BDNF mRNA content and lowered DNA oxidative damage (8-OHdG) in WT mice. (3) Male G93A mice showed significantly higher cell proliferation but a lower level of survival vs. female G93A mice. We conclude that G93A mice show higher hippocampal neurogenesis, in association with higher BDNF expression, yet running did not further enhance these phenomena in G93A mice, probably due to a 'ceiling effect' of an already heightened basal levels of hippocampal neurogenesis and BDNF expression.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e36048. · 4.09 Impact Factor