Immune and nonimmune causes of low recovery from leukodepleted platelet transfusions: a prospective study.
ABSTRACT Alloantibodies against HLA antigens can be reduced by applying leukodepletion to transfusions. Because the importance of immunological and nonimmunological causes of poor platelet transfusion results using leukodepleted transfusions is not clear, we conducted a prospective study in an unselected patient population receiving leukodepleted transfusions. In 97 patients with hematological malignancies, 181 random leukodepleted platelet transfusions were studied for immunological causes of poor platelet transfusion results by calculating the odds ratio of four different screening tests for a low platelet recovery. Nonimmune causes were also studied by calculating the odds ratio of the most prevalent nonimmune causes for a low platelet recovery. No single screening test showed an association with recovery after 1 and 16 h following a platelet transfusion. The combination of a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and platelet immunofluorescence test (PIFT) or a combination of a positive lymphocyte immunofluorescence test (LIFT) and PIFT, demonstrating an association with a low platelet recovery after 16 h, was present in 2% of all platelet transfusions. Of nonimmune causes, splenomegaly and storage time of platelets for more than 3 days were associated with low platelet recovery after 1 h and 16 h of being present in 29% and 47% of all platelet transfusions, respectively. Immunological causes account for a small proportion of poor platelet transfusion results compared to nonimmunological causes in a nonselected patient population receiving leukodepleted transfusions.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: HLA-matched platelets (PLTs) are widely used to transfuse patients but the effectiveness of HLA matching has not been well defined and the cost is approximately five times the cost of preparing the random-donor PLTs. The objective of this systematic review was to determine whether HLA-matched PLTs lead to a reduction in mortality; reduction in frequency or severity of hemorrhage; reduction in HLA alloimmunization, refractoriness, or PLT utilization; or improvement in PLT count increment in patients with hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a literature search of MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Register of Clinical Trials, EMBASE, and PubMed databases to April 2012. RESULTS: A total of 788 citations were reviewed and 30 reports were included in the analysis. Most studies did not include technologies currently in use for HLA typing or detection of HLA antibodies as 75% were conducted before the year 2000. None of the studies were adequately powered to detect an effect on mortality or hemorrhage. HLA-matched PLTs did not reduce alloimmunization and refractoriness rates beyond that offered by leukoreduction, and utilization was not consistently improved. HLA-matched PLTs led to better 1-hour posttransfusion count increments and percentage of PLT recovery in refractory patients; however, the effect at 24 hours was inconsistent. CONCLUSION: The correlation of the PLT increment with other clinical outcomes and the effect of leukoreduction on HLA-matched PLT transfusion could not be determined. Prospective studies utilizing current technology and examining clinical outcomes are necessary to demonstrate the effectiveness of HLA-matched PLT transfusion.Transfusion 04/2013; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alloantibody tests demonstrate immunological causes of insufficient increments in random platelet transfusions. The value of a positive or negative test result in predicting the outcome of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched transfusions in patients refractory to leucodepleted random platelet transfusions has not been assessed. We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of the first HLA-matched platelet transfusion in 72 patients with haematological diseases in two ways: first, the strategy according to which the patient was selected for HLA-matched platelet transfusions was analysed. The strategies were: (i) results of alloantibody tests were not available, (ii) a positive alloantibody test, (iii) a negative alloantibody test. Secondly, the outcome of the first HLA-matched transfusion was investigated relative to the results of alloantibody tests, irrespective of the decision strategy. No significant association was found between the decision strategy and the outcome of the first HLA-matched platelet transfusion. Positive alloantibody tests, however, predicted a better outcome of the first HLA-matched platelet transfusion (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03 after 1 and 16 h respectively). In patients refractory to random platelet transfusions, positive alloantibody tests predicted a better outcome of HLA-matched platelet transfusions. Patients with negative alloantibody tests, however, may benefit from HLA-matched platelet transfusions.British Journal of Haematology 02/2004; 124(2):244-50. · 4.94 Impact Factor