Immune and nonimmune causes of low recovery from leukodepleted platelet transfusions: a prospective study.
ABSTRACT Alloantibodies against HLA antigens can be reduced by applying leukodepletion to transfusions. Because the importance of immunological and nonimmunological causes of poor platelet transfusion results using leukodepleted transfusions is not clear, we conducted a prospective study in an unselected patient population receiving leukodepleted transfusions. In 97 patients with hematological malignancies, 181 random leukodepleted platelet transfusions were studied for immunological causes of poor platelet transfusion results by calculating the odds ratio of four different screening tests for a low platelet recovery. Nonimmune causes were also studied by calculating the odds ratio of the most prevalent nonimmune causes for a low platelet recovery. No single screening test showed an association with recovery after 1 and 16 h following a platelet transfusion. The combination of a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and platelet immunofluorescence test (PIFT) or a combination of a positive lymphocyte immunofluorescence test (LIFT) and PIFT, demonstrating an association with a low platelet recovery after 16 h, was present in 2% of all platelet transfusions. Of nonimmune causes, splenomegaly and storage time of platelets for more than 3 days were associated with low platelet recovery after 1 h and 16 h of being present in 29% and 47% of all platelet transfusions, respectively. Immunological causes account for a small proportion of poor platelet transfusion results compared to nonimmunological causes in a nonselected patient population receiving leukodepleted transfusions.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: HLA-matched platelets (PLTs) are widely used to transfuse patients but the effectiveness of HLA matching has not been well defined and the cost is approximately five times the cost of preparing the random-donor PLTs. The objective of this systematic review was to determine whether HLA-matched PLTs lead to a reduction in mortality; reduction in frequency or severity of hemorrhage; reduction in HLA alloimmunization, refractoriness, or PLT utilization; or improvement in PLT count increment in patients with hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a literature search of MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Register of Clinical Trials, EMBASE, and PubMed databases to April 2012. RESULTS: A total of 788 citations were reviewed and 30 reports were included in the analysis. Most studies did not include technologies currently in use for HLA typing or detection of HLA antibodies as 75% were conducted before the year 2000. None of the studies were adequately powered to detect an effect on mortality or hemorrhage. HLA-matched PLTs did not reduce alloimmunization and refractoriness rates beyond that offered by leukoreduction, and utilization was not consistently improved. HLA-matched PLTs led to better 1-hour posttransfusion count increments and percentage of PLT recovery in refractory patients; however, the effect at 24 hours was inconsistent. CONCLUSION: The correlation of the PLT increment with other clinical outcomes and the effect of leukoreduction on HLA-matched PLT transfusion could not be determined. Prospective studies utilizing current technology and examining clinical outcomes are necessary to demonstrate the effectiveness of HLA-matched PLT transfusion.Transfusion 04/2013; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients with acute myelogenous leukemia undergoing induction chemotherapy have significant decreases in alloimmune platelet refractoriness if they receive filter-leukoreduced or UV-B-irradiated vs standard platelet transfusions (3%-5% vs 13%, respectively; P ≤ .03) with no differences among the treated platelet arms (Trial to Reduce Alloimmunization to Platelets). Therefore, measuring antibody persistence might identify the best platelets for transfusion. Lymphocytotoxic (LCT) antibody duration was evaluated for association with patient age, sex, prior transfusion and pregnancy history, study-assigned platelet transfusions, and percentage LCT panel reactive antibodies. During the Trial to Reduce Alloimmunization to Platelets, 145 patients became antibody positive; and 81 (56%) of them subsequently became antibody negative. Using Kaplan-Meier estimates, projected antibody loss was 73% at 1 year. Major factors associated with antibody persistence were prior pregnancy and percentage panel reactive antibody positivity, whereas neither the assigned type of platelets transfused during the 8 weeks of the trial nor prior transfusion history was predictive. After 5 to 8 weeks, the number and type of blood products transfused had no effect on either antibody development or loss. A majority of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia who develop LCT antibodies during induction chemotherapy will lose their antibodies within 4 months regardless of the type or number of blood products they receive.Transfusion medicine reviews 02/2011; 25(2):102-10. · 4.54 Impact Factor