The protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 regulates interleukin-1-induced ERK activation in fibroblasts
ABSTRACT Focal adhesion complexes are actin-rich, cytoskeletal structures that mediate cell adhesion to the substratum and also selectively regulate signal transduction pathways required for interleukin (IL)-1beta signaling to the MAP kinase, ERK. IL-1-induced ERK activation is markedly diminished in fibroblasts deprived of focal adhesions whereas activation of p38 and JNK is unaffected. While IL-1 signaling is known to involve the activity of protein and lipid kinases including MAP kinases, FAK, and PI3K, little is known about the role of phosphatases in the regulation of IL-1 signal generation and attenuation. Here we demonstrate that SHP-2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase present in focal adhesions, modulates IL-1-induced ERK activation and the transient actin stress fiber disorganization that occurs following IL-1 treatment in human gingival fibroblasts. Using a combination of immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunostaining we show that SHP-2 is present in nascent focal adhesions and undergoes phosphorylation on tyrosine 542 in response to IL-1 stimulation. Blocking anti-SHP-2 antibodies, electoporated into the cytosol of fibroblasts, inhibited IL-1-induced ERK activation, actin filament assembly, and cell contraction, indicating a role for SHP-2 in these processes. In summary, our data indicate that SHP-2, a focal adhesion-associated protein, participates in IL-1-induced ERK activation likely via an adaptor function.
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ABSTRACT: The Helicobacter pylori virulence factor, CagA, is causally linked to lymphoma of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). However, it is unclear how CagA promotes the development of gastric MALT lymphoma. We investigated whether CagA modulates the activation of Erk1/2 and their downstream apoptosis regulators in B lymphocytes. Transfection of B1 lymphocytes with cagA transiently increased Erk1/2 phosphorylation, which was negatively regulated by MKP-1 and MKP-6. Activation of Erk1/2 led to phosphorylation of Bad at Ser-112, as confirmed with a chemical Erk1/2 inhibitor. However, CagA-induced Erk1/2 activation did not alter expression of either Bcl-2 or Bax. Importantly, cagA-transfected B1 cells were significantly protected against apoptosis induced by hydroxyurea. Our results reveal that CagA, to some extent like IL-3, can enhance lymphocytes' ability to evade apoptosis through phosphorylation of Bad. This may account, at least in part, for the ability of CagA to promote lymphomagenesis.Cellular Microbiology 05/2007; 9(4):952-61. DOI:10.1111/j.1462-5822.2006.00843.x · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bacterial infections contribfute to the chronicity of connective tissue lesions in part by perturbing extracellular matrix remodelling processes. We examined a novel mechanism by which the major outer sheath protein (Msp) of the spirochaete Treponema denticola disrupts matrix remodelling mediated by intracellular digestion of collagen. The initial collagen-binding step of phagocytosis was examined in human gingival fibroblasts and Rat-2 fibroblasts. Cells were pretreated with Msp or vehicle, and binding of collagen-coated beads was measured by flow cytometry. Exposure to Msp induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in cells that bound collagen beads; the inhibition of binding was reversed by absorption with anti-Msp antibodies. Msp-treated fibroblasts remained viable but underwent actin reorganization, including the assembly of a dense meshwork of subcortical actin filaments. Shear force assays showed that Msp abrogated collagen-binding interactions in the minimal affinity range required for stable adhesion. Fluorescence microscopy and immunoblotting showed equivalent amounts of beta1 integrin associated with collagen beads bound to Msp- and vehicle-treated cells. Photobleaching experiments found a similar percentage mobile fraction of beta1 integrins recovered in bleached areas of the plasma membrane. In contrast, Msp-induced inhibition of collagen binding was reversed by beta1 integrin affinity-activating antibodies and by latrunculin B, which prevented subcortical actin assembly. We conclude that native Msp of T. denticola inhibits the binding step of collagen phagocytosis in fibroblasts by inducing subcortical actin filament assembly and restricting affinity modulation of beta1 integrins. We suggest that, like Msp, bacterial toxins that target the cytoskeleton may also perturb the signalling networks required for cellular engagement of matrix ligands.Cellular Microbiology 06/2004; 6(5):485-98. DOI:10.1111/j.1462-5822.2004.00377.x · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Connective tissue growth factor [CTGF]/CCN2 is a prototypic member of the CCN family of regulatory proteins. CTGF expression is up-regulated in a number of fibrotic diseases, including diabetic nephropathy, where it is believed to act as a downstream mediator of TGF-beta function; however, the exact mechanisms whereby CTGF mediates its effects remain unclear. Here, we describe the role of CTGF in cell migration and actin disassembly in human mesangial cells, a primary target in the development of renal glomerulosclerosis. The addition of CTGF to primary mesangial cells induced cell migration and cytoskeletal rearrangement but had no effect on cell proliferation. Cytoskeletal rearrangement was associated with a loss of focal adhesions, involving tyrosine dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin, increased activity of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, with a concomitant decrease in RhoA and Rac1 activity. Conversely, Cdc42 activity was increased by CTGF. These functional responses were associated with the phosphorylation and translocation of protein kinase C-zeta to the leading edge of migrating cells. Inhibition of CTGF-induced protein kinase C-zeta activity with a myristolated PKC-zeta inhibitor prevented cell migration. Moreover, transient transfection of human mesangial cells with a PKC-zeta kinase inactive mutant (dominant negative) expression vector also led to a decrease in CTGF-induced migration compared with wild-type. Furthermore, CTGF stimulated phosphorylation and activation of GSK-3beta. These data highlight for the first time an integrated mechanism whereby CTGF regulates cell migration through facilitative actin cytoskeleton disassembly, which is mediated by dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin, loss of RhoA activity, activation of Cdc42, and phosphorylation of PKC-zeta and GSK-3beta. These changes indicate that the initial stages of CTGF mediated mesangial cell migration are similar to those involved in the process of cell polarization. These findings begin to shed mechanistic light on the renal diabetic milieu, where increased CTGF expression in the glomerulus contributes to cellular dysfunction.The FASEB Journal 11/2004; 18(13):1541-3. DOI:10.1096/fj.04-1546fje · 5.48 Impact Factor