The protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 regulates interleukin-1-induced ERK activation in fibroblasts
ABSTRACT Focal adhesion complexes are actin-rich, cytoskeletal structures that mediate cell adhesion to the substratum and also selectively regulate signal transduction pathways required for interleukin (IL)-1beta signaling to the MAP kinase, ERK. IL-1-induced ERK activation is markedly diminished in fibroblasts deprived of focal adhesions whereas activation of p38 and JNK is unaffected. While IL-1 signaling is known to involve the activity of protein and lipid kinases including MAP kinases, FAK, and PI3K, little is known about the role of phosphatases in the regulation of IL-1 signal generation and attenuation. Here we demonstrate that SHP-2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase present in focal adhesions, modulates IL-1-induced ERK activation and the transient actin stress fiber disorganization that occurs following IL-1 treatment in human gingival fibroblasts. Using a combination of immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunostaining we show that SHP-2 is present in nascent focal adhesions and undergoes phosphorylation on tyrosine 542 in response to IL-1 stimulation. Blocking anti-SHP-2 antibodies, electoporated into the cytosol of fibroblasts, inhibited IL-1-induced ERK activation, actin filament assembly, and cell contraction, indicating a role for SHP-2 in these processes. In summary, our data indicate that SHP-2, a focal adhesion-associated protein, participates in IL-1-induced ERK activation likely via an adaptor function.
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ABSTRACT: Caspase-1 activation is a central event in innate immune responses to many pathogenic infections and tissue damage. The NLRP3 inflammasome, a multiprotein scaffolding complex that assembles in response to two distinct steps, priming and activation, is required for caspase-1 activation. However, the detailed mechanisms of these steps remain poorly characterized. To investigate the process of LPS-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome priming, we used constitutively present pro-IL-18 as the caspase-1-specific substrate to allow study of the early events. We analyzed human monocyte caspase-1 activity in response to LPS priming, followed by activation with ATP. Within minutes of endotoxin priming, the NLRP3 inflammasome is licensed for ATP-induced release of processed IL-18, apoptosis-associated speck-forming complex containing CARD, and active caspase-1, independent of new mRNA or protein synthesis. Moreover, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) phosphorylation is central to the priming process. ERK inhibition and small interfering RNA-mediated ERK1 knockdown profoundly impair priming. In addition, proteasome inhibition prevents ERK phosphorylation and blocks priming. Scavenging reactive oxygen species with diphenylene iodonium also blocks both priming and ERK phosphorylation. These findings suggest that ERK1-mediated posttranslational modifications license the NLRP3 inflammasome to respond to the second signal ATP by inducing posttranslational events that are independent of new production of pro-IL-1β and NOD-like receptor components.The Journal of Immunology 03/2014; 192(8). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1301974 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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