Homeopathic aggravations: a systematic review of randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trials.
ABSTRACT Homeopathic aggravations have often been described anecdotally. However, few attempts have been made to scientifically verify their existence. This systematic review aimed at comparing the frequency of homeopathic aggravations in the placebo and verum groups of double-blind, randomised clinical trials. Eight independent literature searches were carried out to identify all such trials mentioning either adverse effects or aggravations. All studies thus found were validated and data were extracted by both authors. Twenty-four trials could be included. The average number of aggravations was low. In total, 50 aggravations were attributed to patients treated with placebo and 63 to patients treated with homoeopathically diluted remedies. We conclude that this systematic review does not provide clear evidence that the phenomenon of homeopathic aggravations exists.
- SourceAvailable from: Edzard Ernst[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of this systematic review was to critically evaluate the evidence regarding the adverse effects (AEs) of homeopathy. Method: Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant case reports and case series. Results: In total, 38 primary reports met our inclusion criteria. Of those, 30 pertained to direct AEs of homeopathic remedies; and eight were related to AEs caused by the substitution of conventional medicine with homeopathy. The total number of patients who experienced AEs of homeopathy amounted to 1159. Overall, AEs ranged from mild-to-severe and included four fatalities. The most common AEs were allergic reactions and intoxications. Rhus toxidendron was the most frequently implicated homeopathic remedy. Conclusion: Homeopathy has the potential to harm patients and consumers in both direct and indirect ways. Clinicians should be aware of its risks and advise their patients accordingly.International Journal of Clinical Practice 12/2012; 66(12):1178-88. · 2.54 Impact Factor
- Journal of Psychosomatic Research 11/2004; 57(5):504-504. · 2.84 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objectives: Recent investigations have pointed to the production of characteristic electromagnetic (EM) waves in highly diluted sterile filtrates of different microorganisms and their associated DNA molecules. Analysis of these diluted solutions that are prepared using methods almost identical to the way that homeopathic medicines are prepared has pointed to the existence of nanostructures capable of emitting EM waves. Combining these results with findings that point to the interaction of EM waves with sensory nerves with subsequent activation of homeostatic efferent pathways, we propose a model to describe mechanisms underlying the effects of homeopathic remedies. The Model: Living cells and tissues are capable of generating EM waves in their physiological conditions. When a cell deviates from its physiological state, in addition to normal EM emissions, it starts to produce EM waves with altered characteristics. According to our model, the main cause of the therapeutic effects of homeopathic remedies is the occurrence of resonance between the non-physiological EM waves of the patient and extremely low-frequency EM waves produced by nanostructures present in the homeopathic remedy. Resonance occurs if the frequency and amplitude characteristics of the patient's non-physiological EM waves and those produced by nanostructures of the applied homeopathic remedy are similar. Once resonance occurs, stimulation of the patient's sensory neurons, which are sensitized due to inflammation of any origin, leads to triggering of different regulatory mechanisms, including the activation of descending antinociceptive and/or cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways, which leads to the restoration of homeostasis.Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 01/2013; · 0.77 Impact Factor