Emergence of phenotypic resistance to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin in methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus strains.
ABSTRACT The emergence of phenotypic resistance to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin in methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains was studied. Twenty MRSA and 77 methicillin-sensitive S.aureus (MSSA) strains susceptible to both quinolones were investigated for resistance after single step or serial passages. No growth of 20 MRSA strains was observed at 4xMIC of levofloxacin after 48 h incubation, but 4 of 77 (5%) MSSA strains grew at the same concentration. At 4xMIC concentration of ciprofloxacin, 10 MSSA (13%) and five MRSA (25%) strains were grown. In the serial passages of MRSA strains, resistance to ciprofloxacin was 75 and 5% for levofloxacin by the third passage. In the seventh passage this resistance was 100 and 15%, respectively. In MSSA strains, resistance to ciprofloxacin was 75 and 19% to levofloxacin at the third passage and at the seventh passage, 100 and 61%, respectively. Emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance was more common and developed more rapidly than resistance to levofloxacin in both MRSA and MSSA strains.
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ABSTRACT: The phenotypic resistance of selected organisms to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and trovafloxacin was defined as a MIC of > or =4 microg/ml. The dynamics of resistance were studied after single and sequential drug exposures: clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were utilized. After a single 48-h exposure of a large inoculum to four times the initial MIC for the organism, the frequency of selection of resistant mutants of MSSA was greater for trovafloxacin than levofloxacin (P = 0.008); for E. cloacae, the frequency was highest for ciprofloxacin and lowest for levofloxacin and trovafloxacin; for S. marcescens, the frequency was highest for trovafloxacin and lowest for ciprofloxacin (P = 0.003). The results of serial passage experiments were analyzed both by the Kaplan-Meier product-limited method as well as by analysis of variance of mean inhibitory values. By both methods, MSSA and MRSA expressed mutants resistant to ciprofloxacin after fewer passages than were required for either levofloxacin or trovafloxacin. For the aerobic gram-negative bacilli, two general patterns emerged. Mutants resistant to trovafloxacin appeared sooner and reached higher mean MICs than did mutants resistant to levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin. Mutants resistant to ciprofloxacin appeared later and reached mean MICs lower than the MICs of the other two drugs studied. Even though individual strain variation occurred, the mean MICs were reproduced when the serial passage experiment was repeated using an identical panel of E. coli isolates. In summary, the dynamic selection of fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria can be demonstrated in experiments that employ serial passage of bacteria in vitro.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/2001; 45(3):883-92. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: For Staphylococcus aureus, stepwise mutations result in high-level quinolone resistance. Methicillin-resistant and -susceptible quinolone-resistant, first-step mutants generated in vitro were obtained and found to be no different than those recovered from murine abscesses. Approximately 10% of all first-step mutants were resistant to ethidium bromide, and selected strains had mutations that mapped to flqB. NorA-mediated resistance among first-step mutants may be more prevalent than previously reported.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 01/1999; 42(12):3317-9. · 4.57 Impact Factor
- Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 03/1998; 42(3):727. · 4.57 Impact Factor