Human keratinocytes express fractalkine/CX3CL1.
ABSTRACT fractalkine/CX3CL1 is a unique chemokine that has properties of both chemoattractants and adhesion molecules. The major source of this chemokine in the skin is still controversial.
studies were undertaken to determine the expression of fractalkine in human skin.
RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunostaining were performed with normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and HaCaT cells, human keratinocyte cell line, for the presence of fractalkine. Biopsy specimens of normal and diseased skin were also investigated.
we identified that NHEK and HaCaT cells expressed fractalkine mRNA and protein. The combination of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma upregulated their expression by NHEK. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated fractalkine expression in keratinocytes in lichen planus and psoriasis vulgaris. RT-PCR also showed that lesional skin of psoriatic patients expressed higher levels of fractalkine mRNA than non-lesional skin from the same patients.
these results suggests that keratinocytes strongly express fractalkine in lichen planus and psoriasis vulgaris and that the fractalkine-CXC3CR1 system in the diseased skin can be a target for the treatment.
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ABSTRACT: Fractalkine is a unique member of the CX3C chemokine family by unfolding its potential through the chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 (CX3CR1) with dual function acting both as an adhesion molecule and a soluble chemokine. The regulation of this chemokine is still not clear. Therefore, we were interested in the regulation of fractalkine and of CX3CR1 in experimental sepsis. In addition, we investigated the role of NF-κB for the regulation of fractalkine and of CX3CR1. Using a mouse model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis, we found elevated fractalkine mRNA levels in the heart, lung, kidney, and liver, as well as increased plasma levels 24 and 48h after CLP, respectively. In parallel, CLP resulted in a significant downregulation of CX3CR1 mRNA receptor expression in all investigated murine tissues. Septic mice that were pretreated with the selective NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) were found to have a decreased liberation of proinflammtory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, or IFN-γ. Further PDTC pretreatment attenuated CLP-induced downregulation of CX3CR1 mRNA as well as CLP-induced upregulation of fractalkine mRNA expression in the heart, lung, kidney, liver, and the increase in fractalkine plasma levels of septic mice. In addition, CLP-induced downregulation of renal CX3CR1 protein expression was inhibited by PDTC-pretreatment. Taken together, our data indicate a CLP-induced inverse regulation of the expression between the relating ligand and the receptor with an upregulation of fractalkine and downregulation of CX3CR1, which seems to be mediated by the transcripting factor NF-κB likely via reduced liberation of proinflammtory cytokines in the whole murine organism.Cytokine 09/2012; · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Picea mariana (Miller) Britton, Sterns, and Poggenburg; Pinaceae) bark has been traditionally used by North American natives for treating topical inflammations. It has been also suggested to improve various inflammatory skin disorders like psoriasis vulgaris. Extracts from this bark storage protein contain polyphenolic compounds which have well-known antiinflammatory activities. Based on the capacity of polyphenolic compounds to modulate functions of normal human keratinocytes, this study was set up to decipher the mechanisms of action of a chemically characterized polyphenolic extract from Picea mariana bark (BS-EAcf) on lesional keratinocytes of skin with psoriasis vulgaris, a disease driven by the immune system in which TNF-α plays a significant role. BS-EAcf corresponds to the ethyl acetate soluble fraction from the hot water extract of Picea mariana bark. BS-EAcf effects were evaluated in normal human (NHK) and psoriatic (PK) keratinocytes stimulated by TNF-α. Cell viability was assessed by lactate deshydrogenase release and propidium iodide (PI) staining. The mechanisms of action of BS-EAcf in keratinocytes were investigated by flow cytometry, ELISAs, RT-PCR and western blot analyses. PK exhibited a higher response to TNF-α than NHK regarding the ICAM-1 expression and the production of NO, IL-6, IL-8, fractalkine and PGE2, whereas BS-EAcf significantly inhibited this TNF-α-induced increase at concentrations without causing keratinocyte toxicity. Additionally, this extract significantly inhibited the TNF-α-induced release of elafin and VEGF by PK and NHK. Since TNF-α activation of most of these factors is dependent on the NF-κB pathway, this latter was studied in TNF-α-activated PK. BS-EAcf inhibited the TNF-α-induced phosphorylation and degradation of total IκBα as well as phosphorylation of NF-κB p65. The ethyl acetate fraction from Picea mariana bark extract showed inhibitory effects of cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, nitric oxide and prostaglandins produced by keratinocytes under TNF-α activation through down-regulating the NF-κB pathway. This study demontrated that this extract could be a potential antiinflammatory agent capable of improving psoriatic skin.Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A type III hypersensitivity reaction induced by an immune complex, such as leukocytoclastic vasculitis, is mediated by inflammatory cell infiltration that is highly regulated by multiple adhesion molecules. CX3CL1, a ligand for CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1), has recently been identified as a key mediator of leukocyte adhesion that functions without the recruitment of integrins or selectin-mediated rolling. To elucidate the role of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 in the development of leukocytoclastic vasculitis, the cutaneous and peritoneal reverse Arthus reactions, classic experimental models for immune complex-mediated tissue injury, were examined in mice lacking CX3CR1. CX3CL1 expression in sera and lesional skin of patients with polyarteritis nodosa (PN) and healthy controls was also examined. Edema and hemorrhage were significantly reduced in CX3CR1-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. Infiltration of neutrophils and mast cells and expression of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α were also decreased in CX3CR1-/- mice. CX3CL1 was expressed in endothelial cells during the cutaneous reverse Arthus reactions. Furthermore, serum CX3CL1 levels were significantly higher in patients with PN than in healthy controls. Endothelial cells in lesional skin of patients with PN strongly expressed CX3CL1. These results suggest that interactions between CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 may contribute to the development of leukocytoclastic vasculitis by regulating neutrophil and mast cell recruitment and cytokine expression.American Journal Of Pathology 03/2013; · 4.52 Impact Factor