Human keratinocytes express fractalkine/CX3CL1.
ABSTRACT fractalkine/CX3CL1 is a unique chemokine that has properties of both chemoattractants and adhesion molecules. The major source of this chemokine in the skin is still controversial.
studies were undertaken to determine the expression of fractalkine in human skin.
RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunostaining were performed with normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and HaCaT cells, human keratinocyte cell line, for the presence of fractalkine. Biopsy specimens of normal and diseased skin were also investigated.
we identified that NHEK and HaCaT cells expressed fractalkine mRNA and protein. The combination of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma upregulated their expression by NHEK. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated fractalkine expression in keratinocytes in lichen planus and psoriasis vulgaris. RT-PCR also showed that lesional skin of psoriatic patients expressed higher levels of fractalkine mRNA than non-lesional skin from the same patients.
these results suggests that keratinocytes strongly express fractalkine in lichen planus and psoriasis vulgaris and that the fractalkine-CXC3CR1 system in the diseased skin can be a target for the treatment.
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ABSTRACT: The development of a good blood supply is a key step in burn wound healing and appears to be regulated in part by myeloid cells. CX3CR1 positive cells have recently been identified as myeloid cells with a potential role in angiogenesis. The role of functional CX3CR1 system in burn wound healing is not previously investigated. A 2% contact burn was induced in CX3CR1(+/gfp) and CX3CR1(gfp/gfp) mice. These transgenic mice facilitate the tracking of CX3CR1 cells (CX3CR1(+/gfp)) and allow evaluation of the consequence of CX3CR1 functional knockout (CX3CR1(gfp/gfp)) on burn wound healing. The progression of wound healing was monitored before tissue was harvested and analyzed at day 6 and day 12 for migration of CX3CR1 cells into burn wound. Deficiency of a functional CX3CR1 system resulted in decreased recruitment of CX3CR1 positive cells into the burn wound associated with decreased myeloid cell recruitment (p<0.001) and reduced maintenance of new vessels (p<0.001). Burn wound healing was prolonged (p<0.05). Our study is the first to establish a role for CX3CR1 in burn wound healing which is associated with sub-dermal angiogenesis. This chemokine receptor pathway may be attractive for therapeutic manipulation as it could increase sub dermal angiogenesis and thereby improve time to healing.Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 09/2011; 37(8):1386-93. DOI:10.1016/j.burns.2011.08.001 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human fractalkine (CX3CL1), a delta-chemokine, is implicated in the mediation of multiple cell functions. In addition to serving as a chemotactic factor for mononuclear cell subtypes, membrane-bound fractalkine may promote viral infection by interacting with virions that encode putative fractalkine-binding proteins. Fractalkine expression in normal epithelial tissues studied to date is either constitutive or is upregulated with inflammation. In salivary glands, the expression of fractalkine is unknown. Moreover, salivary glands are a major site for the persistent and productive infection by human herpesvirus (HHV)-7, which encodes two putative fractalkine-binding gene products, U12 and U51. Surprisingly, the cellular distribution of HHV-7 in major salivary glands has not been explored. We therefore determined by immunohistochemistry the cellular localization of fractalkine in three different salivary glands: parotid, submandibular, and labial glands. Fractalkine expression was highly variable, ranging from high to undetectable levels. We further examined the association of fractalkine with inflammatory cell infiltration or HHV-7 infection of salivary epithelial cells. Inflammatory cells were always adjacent to epithelial cells expressing fractalkine, consistent with a function of fractalkine in inflammatory cell recruitment and/or retention in salivary glands. In contrast, HHV-7-infected epithelial cells did not always express fractalkine, suggesting that fractalkine may not be an absolute requirement for viral entry.Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 06/2004; 52(5):671-81. DOI:10.1177/002215540405200511 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: : The main purpose of this article is to present how Petri Nets (PNs) have been used for hardware design at our research laboratory. We describe the use of PN models to specify synchronous parallel controllers and how PN specifications can be extended to include the behavioural description of the data path, by using object-oriented concepts. Some hierarchical mechanisms which deal with the specification of complex digital systems are highlighted. It is described a design flow that includes, among others, the automatic generation of VHDL code to synthesize the control unit of the system. The use of PNs as part of a multiple-view model within an object-oriented methodology for hardware/software codesign is debated. The EDgAR-2 platform is considered as the reconfigurable target architecture for implementing the systems and its main characteristics are shown. Keywords: Petri Nets, Hardware Design, Reconfigurable Architecture, HW/SW Co-Design An Evolutionary Approach to the Use of Petr...