Echinococcosis - An international public health challenge

Institute for Parasitology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 266a, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
Research in Veterinary Science (Impact Factor: 1.41). 07/2003; 74(3):191-202. DOI: 10.1016/S0034-5288(03)00006-7
Source: PubMed


This review aims to summarise some of the recent studies that have been undertaken on parasites of the genus Echinococcus and the diseases which they cause. Although the adult parasite, which inhabits the intestine of various carnivore species is not pathogenic, the larval or metacestode stages can be highly pathogenic, causing economic losses to livestock and various forms of echinococcosis in humans, some of which have a high fatality rate. There is growing evidence that there are at least 5 species of Echinococcus rather than the generally accepted 4 species. Within these species there are a number of genotypes or strains. This can have implications for surveillance and control. In some wealthy countries, cystic echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus has been successfully controlled or indeed eradicated. However, in most parts of the world it remains a serious threat to human health. In the former Soviet Union, the disease has rapidly increased in incidence after the end of communist administration. Human alveolar echinococcosis, caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, is more sporadic. However, in some Chinese communities there is a disturbingly high human prevalence and in Europe there has been an increase in the detection rate of E. multilocularis in animals in the last 10 years. Echinococcosis can present diagnostic challenges, particularly in the definitive host in areas of low endemicity. Much of the recent work relating to the use of coproantigen and PCR to overcome these difficulties is summarized. New ideas for controlling the parasite are becoming available and these include both the use of vaccination and the application of mathematical models to determine the most cost effective means of control. Effective measures that are affordable are vital if the parasite is to be controlled in poor countries.

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    • "The life cycle of the tapeworm (Echinococcus granulosus) is sustained between the definitive hosts, which are dogs and exhibit canine echinococcosis, and herbivores, the intermediate host in which cystic hydatid disease occurs. Echinococcosis has been identified as a zoonosis in rural livestock-raising areas where humans cohabit with dogs fed on raw livestock offal [3]. Feeding dogs with raw viscera of infected animals contributes to perpetuating this cycle [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Echinococcosis is a public health parasitic disease that is cosmopolitan (Echinococcus granulosus) in its distribution. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have been recognised as the definitive host of the parasite. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria using direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect sera antigen. Two hundred and seventy-three (273) canine sera were tested for the presence of Echinococcus antigen. Purpose of keeping (hunting or companion), age (young or adult), and sex of each dog were considered during sampling. Total prevalence recorded was 12.45% (34/273). There was significant difference (P < 0.05) between hunting (15.94%) and companion dogs (1.52%) but there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between young and adult dogs. There was no association between sex and prevalence of canine echinococcosis. The result of this study established the presence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria; thus there is the possibility of occurrence of zoonotic form of the disease (human cystic hydatid diseases) in the region.
    Journal of Parasitology Research 05/2014; 2014:124358. DOI:10.1155/2014/124358
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    • "It is seen in most regions of the world-particularly the Mediterranean region, Africa and the Middle East-and it is the most frequently encountered form of hydatidosis in humans (FAO, 1982; Thompson, 1995; Torgerson and Budke, 2003; Haridy et al., 2006). CE is re-emerging as a major public health issue (Torgerson and Budke, 2003). Despite efforts to control CE, the disease continues to threaten human health in a number of countries, including Egypt. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hydatid disease is a re-emerging disease that infects human and animals world-wide. Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) is the most common form of the disease. In Egypt, CE is an endemic disease and several reports have indicated an increasing prevalence rate of the CE infection in animals and humans in the last few years. The aim of the current study is to determine the prevalence rate and other epidemiological factors in the infecting of ruminants with CE in different locations in Upper Egypt. The data gathered shows that of 4,498 animals examined, 89 (1.97%) had the hydatid cyst. Sheep were the most affected animal species (14.1%), then goats (13%), camels (5%) and cattle (0.068%), while buffaloes were free from infection. A higher percentage were affected in the liver (39.3%) than in the lungs (32.5%) and other viscera (2.2%), while 25.8% were affected in both the liver and the lungs The general fertility rate of cysts examined was 27.71%; cysts of camel origin were the most fertile (66.6%), followed by those of goats (29.41%) and sheep (15.51%); that of cattle was 0%. The current study provides current data about the status of CE infection in ruminants in Upper Egypt that will aid further studies and enable more precise planning for effective control strategies.
    American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences 07/2013; 8(3):117-121. DOI:10.3844/ajavsp.2013.117.121
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    • "In such areas, bovine hydatidosis in domestic animals can result in significant production losses, including reduction in live weight gain, yield of milk, fertility rates, the value of hide and skin and in decreased edible offals (Torgerson and Budke, 2003). In addition to losses incurred in the abattoir, hydatidosis could have economic impact due to invisible losses like impaired productivity; for example, reduced traction power of oxen which results in reduced crop production (Endrias et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional survey of bovine hydatidosis was carried out on 840 local zebu cattle slaughtered at Mekelle municipal abattoir to determine the prevalence, fertility of hydatid cysts and to assess economic loss. The total prevalence rate was found to be 28.09% at the study period of 8 months from October to May. Observation during the survey period also revealed that the infection rate among different age groups of examined animals were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05), with the highest in old aged cattle (31.98%) followed by adult (21.63%) and young (17.65%). There was statistically significant difference between infection rate and body condition score of the animals with 37.24% lean, 26.27% medium and 21.64% fat body condition. More than 98% of the infected organs were lungs and livers, with higher prevalence in lungs than liver. Out of the total 949 cyst identified, 65.54% were found in lung, 32.88% in liver, 1.01% in heart and 0.53% in kidney. Four hundred and eighty nine of the cysts were small, 160 were medium, 180 were large and 115 were calcified. The fertile, sterile and calcified cysts were found to be 17.44, 45.27 and 37.29%, respectively. Twenty three percent of the fertile cysts were viable and the rest were not. The total annual economic loss was estimated to be 5,200 US Dollar. Furthermore, attempts were made to correlate the origin of the animal and there was no significance between highland and lowland areas.
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