Gender differences in prevalence, risk, and clinical correlates of alcoholism comorbidity in bipolar disorder.
ABSTRACT The prevalence of lifetime alcohol abuse and/or dependence (alcoholism) in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be higher than in all other axis I psychiatric diagnoses. This study examined gender-specific relationships between alcoholism and bipolar illness, which have previously received little systematic study.
The prevalence of lifetime alcoholism in 267 outpatients enrolled in the Stanley Foundation Bipolar Network was evaluated by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Alcoholism and its relationship to retrospectively assessed measures of the course of bipolar illness were evaluated by patient-rated and clinician-administered questionnaires.
As in the general population, more men (49%, 57 of 116) than women with bipolar disorder (29%, 44 of 151) met the criteria for lifetime alcoholism. However, the risk of having alcoholism was greater for women with bipolar disorder (odds ratio=7.35) than for men with bipolar disorder (odds ratio=2.77), compared with the general population. Alcoholism was associated with a history of polysubstance use in women with bipolar disorder and with a family history of alcoholism in men with bipolar disorder.
This study suggests that there are gender differences in the prevalence, risk, and clinical correlates of alcoholism in bipolar illness. Although this study is limited by the retrospective assessment of illness variables, the magnitude of these gender-specific differences is substantial and warrants further prospective study.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate prevalence rates and clinical correlates of alcohol use disorders (AUD) among bipolar disorder (BD) patients in a large sample from the Brazilian Bipolar Research Network. Four hundred and eighty-three DSM-IV BD patients, divided according to the presence or absence of a lifetime AUD diagnosis (BD-AUD vs. BD-nonAUD), were included. Demographic and clinical characteristics of these two groups were compared. Logistic regression was performed to identify which characteristics were most strongly associated with a lifetime AUD diagnosis. Nearly 23% presented a lifetime AUD diagnosis. BD-AUD patients were more likely to be male, to present rapid cycling, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anorexia, other substance use disorders (SUD), family history of SUD, any substance misuse during the first mood episode, history of psychosis, suicide attempts, and younger age at onset of illness than BD-nonAUD patients. Logistic regression showed that the variables most strongly associated with a lifetime AUD diagnosis were SUD (non-alcohol), any substance misuse during the first mood episode, PTSD, male gender, suicide attempt, family history of SUD, and younger age at onset of BD. BD-AUD patients begin their mood disorder earlier and present more suicidal behaviors than BD-nonAUD patients. Personal and family history of SUD may be good predictors of comorbid AUD among BD patients. These variables are easily assessed in the clinical setting and may help to identify a particularly severe subgroup of BD patients.Comprehensive psychiatry 02/2014; · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective Ethnic, social and cultural factors contribute to axis I comorbid conditions in bipolar disorder (BPD). Korea has strict laws against illicit drugs and a relatively permissive prevailing attitude toward alcohol. The present study aimed to explore the lifetime axis I comorbidity rate in patients with BPD in Korea. Methods Clinically stable patients with bipolar I (n=222) and bipolar II (n=194) disorders were recruited from four tertiary medical centers in Korea. The subjects׳ diagnoses and axis I comorbid conditions were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID) and the Korean version of the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (K-DIGS). The lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders, substance use disorders and eating disorders was explored. The prevalence of these axis I comorbid conditions was compared with data from prior studies in other countries and to data concerning the general Korean population. Results A total of 45.1% of all subjects had at least one axis I comorbid condition. Anxiety disorders (30.2%) were the most common comorbidity, followed by alcohol use disorders (16.8%). Males with BPD showed a higher rate of alcohol dependence compared to the general male population and females with BPD showed a greater risk of having alcohol use disorder compared to the general female population. The rate of drug use disorder was extremely low (1.7%), and only one subject had an illicit-drug-related problem. Limitation Cross-sectional studies. Conclusion Comorbid conditions of Korean patients with BPD showed a distinct pattern, which is associated with the ethnic, social and cultural characteristics in Korea.Journal of Affective Disorders 09/2014; 166:264–269. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Glutamate system is modified by ethanol and contributes both to the euphoric and the dysphoric consequences of intoxication, but there is now growing evidence that the glutamatergic system also plays a central role in the neurobiology and treatment of mood disorders, including major depressive disorders and bipolar disorders. We speculate that, using acamprosate, patients with bipolar depression (BIP-A) can take advantage of the anti-glutamate effect of acamprosate to "survive" in treatment longer than peers suffering from non-bipolar depression (NBIP-A) after detoxification. Method: We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of a long-term (six-month) acamprosate treatment, after alcohol detoxification, in 41 patients (19 males and 22 females), who could be classified as depressed alcoholics, while taking into account the presence/absence of bipolarity. Results: During the period of observation most NBIP-A patients relapsed, whereas a majority of BIP-A patients were still in treatment at the end of their period of observation. The cumulative proportion of 'surviving' patients was significantly higher in BIP-A patients, but this finding was not related to gender or to other demographic or clinically investigated characteristics. The treatment time effect was significant in both subgroups. The treatment time-group effect was significant (and significantly better) for bipolar patients on account of changes in the severity of their illness. Limitations: Retrospective methodology and the lack of DSM criteria in diagnosing bipolarity. Conclusions: Bipolarity seems to be correlated with the efficacy of acamprosate treatment in inducing patients to refrain from alcohol use after detoxification (while avoiding relapses) in depressed alcoholics. Placebo-controlled clinical trials are now warranted to check the validity of this hypothesis.International journal of environmental research and public health 12/2014; 11. · 1.61 Impact Factor