Waterborne and sediment toxicity of fluoxetine to select organisms

Baylor University, Waco, Texas, United States
Chemosphere (Impact Factor: 3.34). 08/2003; 52(1):135-42. DOI: 10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00103-6
Source: PubMed


Ecological risk assessments of pharmaceuticals are currently difficult because little-to-no aquatic hazard and exposure information exists in the peer-reviewed literature for most therapeutics. Recently several studies have identified fluoxetine, a widely prescribed antidepressant, in municipal effluents. To evaluate the potential aquatic toxicity of fluoxetine, single species laboratory toxicity tests were performed to assess hazard to aquatic biota. Average LC(50) values for Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas were 0.756 (234 microg/l), 2.65 (820 microg/l), and 2.28 microM (705 microg/l), respectively. Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata growth and C. dubia fecundity were decreased by 0.044 (14 microg/l) and 0.72 microM (223 microg/l) fluoxetine treatments, respectively. Oryias latipes survival was not affected by fluoxteine exposure up to a concentration of 28.9 microM (8.9 mg/l). An LC(50) of 15.2 mg/kg was estimated for Chironomus tentans. Hyalella azteca survival was not affected up to 43 mg/kg fluoxetine sediment exposure. Growth lowest observed effect concentrations for C. tentans and H. azteca were 1.3 and 5.6 mg/kg, respectively. Our findings indicate that lowest measured fluoxetine effect levels are an order of magnitude higher than highest reported municipal effluent concentrations.

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    • "Therefore, venlafaxine and its metabolites can remain in the aquatic environment for long time, and cause chronic sublethal and acute lethal toxicity to aquatic life [14]. For example, they can affect the central nervous system, disrupt the neuron-endocrine signaling , and alter the reproduction patterns of aquatic organisms [15]. Moreover, it has been reported that at a concentration of 500 ng/L, venlafaxine can produce effects on embryonic development in fathead minnows, affecting their latency period and total escape response [16]. "
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    • "Minagh et al. 2009; Minguez et al. 2014b) but data are globally missing for marine organisms. In addition, studies mainly focus on only one species but works assessing their toxicity on several organisms are scarce (Brooks et al. 2003b; Johnson et al. 2007; Minagh et al. 2009). However, multispecies approaches would be more environmentally relevant and thus lead to the current study which used a battery of seven freshwater and marine organisms to test the toxicity of three antidepressants. "
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    • "They include newer substances such as compounds that recently were discovered in the environment (Lindsey et al., 2001; Petrovic and Barcel o, 2006; Richardson and Ternes, 2011). Although the low concentration in which they can be found in the environment, concern related to these contaminants is essentially due to their bioaccumulation and persistence (Miranda-García et al., 2010; Richardson, 2008; Hernando et al., 2007; Kasprzyk-Hordern et al., 2008; Kim et al., 2007) as well as their resistance to conventional wastewater treatments (Dantas et al., 2008; Planas et al., 1997; Quinn et al., 2008; Crane et al., 2006; Schultz et al., 2010; Brooks et al., 2003; Nentwig, 2007). When there are no adequate treatments units, wastewater treatment plants could be identified as a major source of these compounds to the environment (Clara et al., 2005; Glassmeyer et al., 2005), so it is necessary to provide them of specific treatments able to eliminate CECs especially when reuse is aimed. "
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