Stretch-modulation of second messengers: effects on cardiomyocyte ion transport.
ABSTRACT In cardiomyocytes, mechanical stress induces a variety of hypertrophic responses including an increase in protein synthesis and a reprogramming of gene expression. Recently, the calcium signaling has been reported to play an important role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. In this article, we report on the role of the calcium signaling in stretch-induced gene expression in cardiomyocytes. Stretching of cultured cardiomyocytes up-regulates the expression of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Intracellular calcium-elevating agents such as the calcium ionophore A23187, the calcium channel agonist BayK8644 and the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin up-regulate BNP gene expression. Conversely, stretch-induced BNP gene expression is suppressed by EGTA, stretch-activated ion channel inhibitors, voltage-dependent calcium channel antagonists, and long-time exposure to thapsigargin. Furthermore, stretch increases the activity of calcium-dependent effectors such as calcineurin and calmodulin-dependent kinase II, and inhibitors of calcineurin and calmodulin-dependent kinase II significantly attenuated stretch-induced hypertrophy and BNP expression. These results suggest that calcineurin and calmodulin-dependent kinase II are activated by calcium influx and subsequent calcium-induced calcium release, and play an important role in stretch-induced gene expression during the development of cardiac hypertrophy.
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ABSTRACT: This study investigates the time-dependent effects of cinacalcet on serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in 5/6 nephrectomized (NX) rats with experimental chronic renal insufficiency. In this study, 5/6 NX male, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with vehicle or cinacalcet (10 mg/kg, oral, 1× daily). On Day 0 (before treatment), Day 12 and 13 after treatment (to approximate the clinical practice), and also at 0, 1, 4, 8, 16, and 24 hours after the last dosing, blood was collected for analysis. After 12 or 13 days of cinacalcet treatment, modest changes were observed in serum Ca and phosphorus (Pi), while PTH decreased by >45% to Sham levels (152 ± 15 pg/mL). Detailed mapping found that cinacalcet caused a significant time-dependent decrease in serum Ca following dosing, reaching a lowest point at 8 hours (decrease by 20% to 8.43 ± 0.37 mg/dL), and then returning to normal at 24 hours. Cinacalcet also caused a significant increase in serum Pi levels (by 18%). To investigate the potential mechanism of action, a broad approach was taken by testing cinacalcet in a panel of 77 protein-binding assays. Cinacalcet interacted with several channels, transporters, and neurotransmitter receptors, some of which are involved in brain and heart, and may impact Ca homeostasis. Cinacalcet dose-dependently increased brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) mRNA expression by 48% in cardiomyocytes, but had no significant effects on left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac function. The results suggest that cinacalcet's hypocalcemic effect may be due to its nonspecific interaction with other receptors in brain and heart.Physiological reports. 08/2013; 1(3):e00046.
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ABSTRACT: Thirty years ago, De Bold et al. (20) reported that atrial extracts contain some biologically active peptides, which promote a rapid and massive diuresis and natriuresis when injected in rats. It is now clear that the heart also exerts an endocrine function and in this way plays a key role in the regulation of cardiovascular and renal systems. The aim of this review is to discuss some recent insights and still-debated findings regarding the cardiac natriuretic hormones (CNHs) produced and secreted by cardiomyocytes (i.e., atrial natriuretic peptide and B-type natriuretic peptide). The functional status of the CNH system depends not only on the production/secretion of CNHs by cardiomyocytes but also on both the peripheral activation of circulating inactive precursor of natriuretic hormones and the transduction of the hormone signal by specific receptors. In this review, we will discuss the data supporting the hypothesis that the production and secretion of CNHs is the result of a complex integration among mechanical, chemical, hemodynamic, humoral, ischemic, and inflammatory inputs. The cross talk among endocrine function, adipose tissue, and sex steroid hormones will be discussed more in detail, considering the clinically relevant relationships linking together cardiovascular risk, sex, and body fat development and distribution. Finally, we will review the pathophysiological role and the clinical relevance of both peripheral maturation of the precursor of B-type natriuretic peptides and hormone signal transduction.AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 05/2011; 301(1):H12-20. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Nebulette (NEBL) is a sarcomeric Z-disc protein involved in mechanosensing and force generation via its interaction with actin and tropomyosin-troponin complex. Genetic abnormalities in NEBL lead to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in humans and animal models. OBJECTIVES: To determine the earliest preclinical mechanical changes in the myocardium and define underlying molecular mechanisms by which NEBL mutations lead to cardiac dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined cardiac function in 3-month-old non-transgenic (non-Tg) and transgenic (Tg) mice (WT-Tg, G202R-Tg, A592E-Tg) by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Contractility and calcium transients were measured in isolated cardiomyocytes. A592E-Tg mice exhibited enhanced in vivo twist and untwisting rate compared to control groups. Ex vivo analysis of A592E-Tg cardiomyocytes showed blunted calcium decay response to isoproterenol. CMR imaging of G202R-Tg mice demonstrated reduced torsion compared to non-Tg and WT-Tg, but conserved twist and untwisting rate after correcting for geometric changes.Ex vivo analysis of G202R-Tg cardiomyocytes showed elevated calcium decay at baseline and a conserved contractile response to isoproterenol stress. Protein analysis showed decreased -actinin and connexin43, increased cardiac troponin I phosphorylation at baseline in G202R-Tg, providing a molecular mechanism for enhanced ex vivo calcium decay. Ultrastructurally, G202R-Tg cardiomyocytes exhibited increased I-band and sarcomere length, desmosomal separation, and enlarged t-tubules. A592E-Tg cardiomyocytes also showed abnormal ultrastructural changes and desmin downregulation. CONCLUSION: This study showed distinct effects of NEBL mutations on sarcomere ultrastructure, cellular contractile function, and calcium homeostasis in preclinical DCM in vivo. We suggest that these abnormalities correlate with detectable myocardial wall motion patterns. (Word count: 250).Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 04/2013; · 5.15 Impact Factor