Attenuation of immunological symptoms of allergic asthma in mice lacking the tyrosine kinase ITK.
ABSTRACT Allergic asthma patients manifest airway inflammation and some show increases in eosinophils, T(H)2 cells, and cytokines, increased mucous production in the lung, and elevated serum IgE. This T(H)2-type response suggests a prominent role for T(H)2 cells and their cytokines in the pathology of this disease. The Tec family nonreceptor tyrosine kinase inducible T cell kinase (ITK) has been shown to play a role in the differentiation and/or function of T(H)2-type cells, suggesting that ITK may represent a good target for the control of asthma. Using a murine model of allergic asthma, we show here that ITK is involved in the development of immunological symptoms seen in this model. We show that mice lacking ITK have drastically reduced lung inflammation, eosinophil infiltration, and mucous production following induction of allergic asthma. Notably, T cell influx into the lung was reduced in mice lacking ITK. T cells from ITK(-/-) mice also exhibited reduced proliferation and cytokine secretion, in particular IL-5 and IL-13, in response to challenge with the allergen OVA, despite elevated levels of total IgE and increased OVA-specific IgE responses. Our results suggest that the tyrosine kinase ITK preferentially regulates the secretion of the T(H)2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 and may be an attractive target for antiasthmatic drugs.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a life-threatening impediment to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and current therapies do not completely prevent and/or treat cGVHD. CD4+ T cells and B cells mediate cGVHD; therefore, targeting these populations may inhibit cGVHD pathogenesis. Ibrutinib is an FDA-approved irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) and IL-2 inducible T cell kinase (ITK) that targets Th2 cells and B cells and produces durable remissions in B cell malignancies with minimal toxicity. Here, we evaluated whether ibrutinib could reverse established cGVHD in 2 complementary murine models, a model interrogating T cell-driven sclerodermatous cGVHD and an alloantibody-driven multiorgan system cGVHD model that induces bronchiolar obliterans (BO). In the T cell-mediated sclerodermatous cGVHD model, ibrutinib treatment delayed progression, improved survival, and ameliorated clinical and pathological manifestations. In the alloantibody-driven cGVHD model, ibrutinib treatment restored pulmonary function and reduced germinal center reactions and tissue immunoglobulin deposition. Animals lacking BTK and ITK did not develop cGVHD, indicating that these molecules are critical to cGVHD development. Furthermore, ibrutinib treatment reduced activation of T and B cells from patients with active cGVHD. Our data demonstrate that B cells and T cells drive cGVHD and suggest that ibrutinib has potential as a therapeutic agent, warranting consideration for cGVHD clinical trials.The Journal of clinical investigation 10/2014; DOI:10.1172/JCI75328 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase (ITK) and resting lymphocyte kinase (RLK or TXK) are essential mediators of intracellular signaling in both normal and neoplastic T and NK cells. Thus, ITK and RLK inhibitors have therapeutic potential in a number of human autoimmune, inflammatory, and malignant diseases. Here we describe a novel ITK/RLK inhibitor, PRN694, which covalently binds to cysteine residues 442 of ITK and 350 of RLK and blocks kinase activity. Molecular modeling was utilized to design molecules that interact with cysteine while binding to the ATP binding site in the kinase domain. PRN694 exhibits extended target residence time on ITK and RLK and is highly selective for a subset of the TEC kinase family. In vitro cellular assays confirm that PRN694 prevents T-cell receptor (TCR) and Fc receptor (FcR) - induced cellular and molecular activation, inhibits TCR-induced T-cell proliferation, and blocks pro-inflammatory cytokine release as well as activation of Th17 cells. Ex vivo assays demonstrate inhibitory activity against T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) cells, and in vivo assays demonstrate durable pharmacodynamic effects on ITK, which reduces an oxazolone-induced delayed type hypersensitivity reaction. These data indicate that PRN694 is a highly selective and potent covalent inhibitor of ITK and RLK, and its extended target residence time enables durable attenuation of effector cells in vitro and in vivo. The results from this study highlight potential applications of this dual inhibitor for the treatment of T or NK cell-mediated inflammatory, autoimmune, and malignant diseases. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2015; 290(10). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.614891 · 4.60 Impact Factor