Two isoflavones, calycosin-7-O-beta-D-glycoside and formononetin-7-O-beta-D-glycoside, were separated from n-butanol extract of the root of Astragalus membranaceus Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao by high-speed counter-current chromatography in two steps using two different solvent systems composed of ethyl acetate-ethanol-n-butanol-water (30:10:6:50, v/v) and ethyl acetate-ethanol-water (5:1:5, v/v). From 200 mg of crude extract, calycosin-7-O-beta-D-glycoside (12 mg) and formononetin-7-O-beta-D-glycoside (10 mg) were isolated at over 95% purity by HPLC analyses, and their structures were identified by MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR.
"Radix Astragali is widely used for its antiperspirant, antidiuretic, and antidiabetic properties and as a tonic drug   . It possesses various beneficial compounds, including astragalosides , isoflavonoids, isoflavones, isoflavan, and pterocarpan glycosides   . Due to the high market demand for Radix Astragali, a diverse group of adulterants with similar-morphological characteristics from genuses, such as Astragalus, Hedysarum, and Malva are often used in its stead . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radix Astragali is a popular herb used in traditional Chinese medicine for its proimmune and antidiabetic properties. However, methods are needed to help distinguish Radix Astragali from its varied adulterants. DNA barcoding is a widely applicable molecular method used to identify medicinal plants. Yet, its use has been hampered by genetic distance, base variation, and limitations of the bio-NJ tree. Herein, we report the validation of an integrated analysis method for plant species identification using DNA barcoding that focuses on genetic distance, identification efficiency, inter- and intraspecific variation, and barcoding gap. We collected 478 sequences from six candidate DNA barcodes (ITS2, ITS, psbA-trnH, rbcL, matK, and COI) from 29 species of Radix Astragali and adulterants. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence was demonstrated as the optimal barcode for identifying Radix Astragali and its adulterants. This new analysis method is helpful in identifying Radix Astragali and expedites the utilization and data mining of DNA barcoding.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 08/2014; 2014:843923. DOI:10.1155/2014/843923 · 1.88 Impact Factor
"It is believed by the consumers that the dried root reinforces ''Qi'' (vital energy) and is often used as an antiperspirant , an immunostimulant, a diuretic and as a supplementary medicine during cancer therapy (Zheng 2005; Wagner et al. 1997). The isoflavone compounds of roots are most often related to the bioactivity of the herb (Ma et al. 2003); calycosin and its 7-O-b-D-glu- coside are the major isoflavones in roots of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus (Wu et al. 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The changes in calycosin and calycosin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside content as well as the expression of genes involved in their biosynthesis were monitored in roots, stems and leaves of Astragalus membranaceus Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao seedlings during 10 days of low temperature treatment. The concentrations of calycosin and its 7-O-beta-D-glucoside in the different tissues were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Higher glycoside contents were observed at 2 degrees C than that at 16 degrees C in all the tested tissues, however, the aglycone was scarcely detected in both leaves and stems at either 16 or 2 degrees C. cDNA fragments encoding four structural genes from the calycosin pathway, namely chalcone synthase, isoflavone synthase, isoflavone 3'-hydroxylase and UDP-glucose: calycosin-7-O-glucosyltransferase were isolated from A. membranaceus var. mongholicus seedlings by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Real-time quantitative reverse transcript PCR demonstrated that in leaves and stems, five genes (including phenylalanine ammonia lyase), exhibited clear differences in their accumulation pattern in response to a low temperature stress, which was consistent with the increased content of calycosin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside. In the roots, transcription of the five genes was down-regulated at 2 degrees C, but the contents of calycosin and its glucosides were higher than that at 16 degrees C. These findings indicate that low temperature stress could induce accumulation of calycosin and its glucosides in different tissues of the seedlings of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus but the mechanisms regulating the accumulation were different.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two new isoflavonoids 7,8,4'-trimethoxyisoflavone and 7,8,4'-trimethoxyisoflavanone and calycosin (7,3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone) were isolated from the wood of the leguminous tree Bowdichia virgilioides by usual chromatographic procedures. Besides these compounds the pterocarpane (-)-maackianin, isoliquiritigenin (4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone), and the hydrobenzylfurane derivative bowdenol were also obtained. The structures of these new compounds were determinated by MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis.
Natural Product Research 02/2006; 20(1):27-30. DOI:10.1080/14786410500160942 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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