Citrobacter freundii septicemia in two dogs.
ABSTRACT A 4-month-old Maltese puppy and a 7.5-year-old Collie were diagnosed with septicemia associated with Citrobacter freundii. The puppy died soon, after developing weakness and mucohemorragic diarrhea. The Collie had immune-mediated hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia and was treated with immunosuppressive drugs before being euthanized. Gross examination of the puppy revealed mucohemorrhagic intestinal contents. Focal necrotic hepatitis, fibrinous peritonitis, interstitial pneumonia, and hemorrhagic gastrointestinal contents were observed in the older dog. Histologically, there was a diffuse, moderate, histiocytic meningitis in the puppy and a focal fibrinonecrotic hepatitis in the adult dog. Lesions in both dogs contained numerous gram-negative rods. Citrobacter freudii is a potential cause of monomicrobic bacteraemia-septicemia in puppies or immunocompromized adult dogs. The gastrointestinal tract is probably the main site of entry.