To estimate the usefulness of absent nasal bone by ultrasound in the prenatal detection of second-trimester fetuses with trisomy 21.
This was a matched case-control study of sonograms from January 1, 1997 to April 30, 2002. Genetic sonograms and facial profile pictures of all fetuses that were subsequently proven to have trisomy 21 were reviewed (study group). A control group was identified during the same study period by using a 4-to-1 ratio matching for gestational age at the time of the ultrasound examination. The sensitivity and specificity of absent fetal nasal bone for trisomy 21 were determined, and overlap with other ultrasound aneuploidy markers was assessed.
Forty fetuses were identified with trisomy 21; in 29 (72.5%) a facial profile had been obtained. Of the 160 controls, 102 (64%) had facial profiles documented. Of the 29 fetuses with trisomy 21 with facial profile available, 12 had absent nasal bone (sensitivity 41%). None of the 102 control fetuses with facial profiles available had absent nasal bone (specificity 100%). The sensitivity of genetic ultrasound was increased from 83% (24 of 29) to 90% (26 of 29) by adding absent nasal bone to the other ultrasound aneuploidy markers.
In the second trimester of pregnancy, absent nasal bone has a sensitivity of 41% and a specificity of 100% in detecting fetal trisomy 21. Absent fetal nasal bone may be added to the list of ultrasound aneuploidy markers evaluated during a genetic sonogram.
"Absence and hypoplasia of the nasal bones have been proposed recently as important markers for the detection of trisomy 21 (Bunduki et al., 2003; Vintzileos et al., 2003; Zoppi et al., 2003). In order to be accurate, this finding must be assessed using a midsagittal section of the face (Bergé et al., 2001). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the relationship between trisomies 13, 18, and 21 and craniofacial malformations detected by prenatal sonography.
During a 29-year period (1976 through 2004), prenatal sonographic findings of 69 fetuses with trisomy 13; 171 fetuses with trisomy 18; 302 fetuses with trisomy 21; and 17 fetuses with other trisomies were evaluated retrospectively, after fetal karyotype identification. Sonographic findings were compared with autopsy results in 209 patients (trisomy 13, n=39; trisomy 18, n=64; and trisomy 21, n=106).
For trisomy 13, cleft deformities were detected prenatally in 65.2%, and of the 39 cases with pathological information, 76.9% were found to have a cleft deformity. Ocular and orbital abnormalities were found in 28%. Malformations of the jaws and abnormal profiles were more frequently diagnosed postnatally than prenatally. For trisomy 18, abnormal profiles (41.5%) and ear abnormalities (5.3%) were the most noticeable ultrasound markers, next to abnormalities of the neurocranium (36.8%) and cranial bone configuration (21.6%). Dysmorphisms of the eye, ear, or nose were detected more frequently in autopsy cases. For trisomy 21, ultrasound showed an aberrant shape of the skull in 14.2% of fetuses. In general, the ocular-orbital and nasal abnormalities in fetuses with trisomy 18 or 21 were more evident in pathological examination than in prenatal ultrasound imaging.
Facial anomalies are common in the major trisomies, and their prenatal sonographic identification should be improved. The above-mentioned facial anomalies provide sufficient reason to consider performing cytogenic evaluation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of genetic counseling given before amniocentesis that is given based on maternal serum screening (using the cut-off value of 1/250) and genetic sonogram results (+/- abnormal ultrasound marker) on pregnant women who are 35 years and older age. Their attitudes towards amniocentesis after genetic counseling were evaluated. Among 340 women, 223 (65.6%) were in the high-risk group and 117 (34.4%) were in the low-risk group according to non-invasive test results. After counseling, 216 pregnant women (167 cases have high-risk, 49 cases who had low-risk) decided to have amniocentesis while 124 women (56 with high-risk and 68 with low-risk) declined it. Fourteen abnormal karyotypes were detected. All pregnant women who had fetuses with chromosomal aberrations were in high-risk group. Our study shows that screening by non-invasive prenatal diagnostic tool has an effect on families' choice of amniocentesis. The use of these test results during counseling decreased the number of amniocentesis in a ratio of 36.5%.
European Journal of Medical Genetics 01/2005; 48(1):13-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmg.2005.01.018 · 1.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound of the fetal face with maximal mode rendering allows accurate visualization of the bony face and the distinct demonstration of both nasal bones in second-trimester fetuses. The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of assessing nasal bones spatially on prenatal ultrasound in second- and third-trimester fetuses with present and absent nasal bones.
The faces of 38 fetuses between 17 and 33 weeks' gestation were examined with 3D ultrasound and volumes were stored for offline evaluation. Eighteen fetuses had normal karyotype and an apparently normal nasal bone on 2D ultrasound; these were examined to standardize the 3D rendering technique. Twenty fetuses had trisomy 21.
In all 18 healthy fetuses both nasal bones could be demonstrated on 3D ultrasound. Nine of the 20 Down syndrome fetuses had a hypoplastic or absent nasal bone on two-dimensional ultrasound. On 3D ultrasound three of the nine had discrepant findings between left and right nasal bones with evidence of absence of one side, and hypoplasia (n = 2) or normal length (n = 1) of the other.
Unilateral absence or hypoplasia of nasal bones is an important and new observation in fetuses with Down syndrome. This differentiation is best demonstrated on 3D ultrasound with maximal mode rendering. This observation of unilaterality of findings could explain some discrepant findings on absence of nasal bones on two-dimensional ultrasound but their "presence" on lateral postmortem radiographs.
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2005; 25(1):19-24. DOI:10.1002/uog.1805 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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