Miyata Y, Koga S, Kanda S, Nishikido M, Hayashi T, Kanetake HExpression of cyclooxygenase-2 in renal cell carcinoma: correlation with tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2, and survival. Clin Cancer Res 9: 1741-1749
Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, angiogenesis, and invasion in various malignant tumors. However, the relationships between COX-2 expression and these biological processes, clinicopathological features, and survival rate in patients with renal cell carcinoma are not clear.
Tumor sections surgically removed from 131 patients were examined for COX-2 expression by immunohistochemistry. We also examined Ki-67 labeling index, apoptotic index, microvessel density, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression, and correlated COX-2 expression with various clinicopathological features and survival.
Of 131 sections, 70 (53.4%) were positive for COX-2 expression. COX-2 expression was associated significantly with various clinicopathological features, and correlated with the Ki-67 labeling index, microvessel density, and MMP-2 expression (P < 0.01), but not with the apoptotic index (P = 0.054). COX-2 expression was also identified as an independent risk factor for large tumor size (>7 cm) in multivariate logistic regression model. COX proportional hazards analysis showed that distant metastasis and high T stage were independent prognostic factors [odds ratio (OR), 9.41; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.16-41.11; P < 0.01 and OR, 5.19; 95% CI, 1.02-26.54; P = 0.048, respectively), whereas COX-2 expression was not (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 0.24-9.00; P = 0.68).
COX-2 expression in patients with renal cell carcinoma is associated with several clinicopathological factors, and appeared to play an important role in tumor cell proliferation and MMP-2 expression, but is not a significant prognostic factor.
"COX-2 is an enzyme which catalyzes the synthesis of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. It has been also demonstrated that COX-2 is increased in RCC and plays an important role in the proliferation of malignant renal cells [32,33]. Our results also confirmed both HO-1 and COX-2 are upregulated in RCC patients and cell lines, but further evidence indicates MAT2A is negative correlation with HO-1, no COX-2. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methionine adenosyltransferase 2A (MAT2A) is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) by joining methionine and ATP. SAMe is a methyl donor for transmethylation and has an important role for DNA and/or protein methylation. MAT2A is expressed widely in many tissues especially in kidney. Several studies have demonstrated that there are abnormal expressions of MAT2A in several kinds of cancers such as liver and colon cancers. But the relationship of MAT2A between renal cell carcinomas (RCC) is less understood.
The mRNA expression level of the MAT2A gene was determined in 24 RCC patients and 4 RCC cell lines, using real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The MAT2A protein content was measured by western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis in 55 RCC patients.The mRNA levels of heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were also analysized in patients using RT-PCR. The correlations between the MAT2A and HO-1 as well as COX-2 were analyzed with nonparametric Spearman method.
MAT2A transcript was significantly downregulated in cancer tissues compared to normal tissues (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis and western blotting indicated that level of MAT2A protein was decreased in cancer tissues. The statistical analysis reveals a negative correlation between MAT2A and HO-1 expression in RCC patients and cell lines (P < 0.01).
This study demonstrated that MAT2A was lower expression in cancer tissues, suggesting that it may be involved in the development of RCC. MAT2A is a transcriptional corepressor for HO-1 expression by supplying SAM for methyltransferases,which may be one of potential mechanism of MAT2A as tumor suppressor in kidney carcinogenesis.
BMC Cancer 03/2014; 14(1):196. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-196 · 3.36 Impact Factor
"Sections were counterstained using hematoxylin. Other methods were performed as described previously , , . Briefly, we also evaluated VEGF-A, -C, and -D and COX-2 expressions in similar specimens using immunohistochemical techniques. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human antigen R (HuR) regulates the stability of mRNA and is associated with cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis. However, the clinical significance and pathological role of HuR in bladder cancer remains unclear. The main objective of this investigation was to clarify the relationships between HuR expression and clinical significance and cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and expressions of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, -C, and -D.
All expressions were examined by immunohistochemical techniques in 122 formalin-fixed specimens of bladder cancer patients. HuR expression was evaluated separately with cytoplasmic and nuclear staining. Cell proliferation, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis were measured as the percentage of Ki-67-positive cell (proliferation index, PI), CD34-stained vessels (microvessel density, MVD), and D2-40-stained vessels (lymph vessel density, LVD). Relationships between each HuR expression and clinicopathological features, prognosis, and expressions of COX-2 and VEGFs were analyzed by multi-variate analyses. HuR expression was also investigated in 10 mice of N-Butyl-N-[4-hydroxybutil] nitrosamine (BBN) induced bladder cancer model.
In human tissues, high cytoplasmic expression was seen in 5% and 25.4% of normal and cancer cells, respectively. Nuclear HuR expression bore no significant relationship to any pathological features. However, cytoplasmic HuR expression appeared positively associated with pT stage and grade (P<0.001). In mouse tissues, similar trends were confirmed. Cytoplasmic expression correlated with PI, MVD, and LVD, as well as expression of VEGF-A and -C, but not VEGF-D. High cytoplasmic expression of HuR was a significant predictor of metastasis and cause-specific survival, and was identified as a prognostic correlative factor for metastasis (hazard ratio, 4.75; P = 0.028) in a multivariate analysis model that included pathological features.
Cytoplasmic HuR appears to play important roles in cell proliferation, progression, and survival of bladder cancer patients. Its expression was associated with angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and expressions of VEGF-A and -C.
PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e59095. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0059095 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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