Slavin J. Why whole grains are protective: biological mechanisms. Proc Nutr Soc 62, 129

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, 1334 Eckles Avenue, St Paul, MN 55108, USA.
Proceedings of The Nutrition Society (Impact Factor: 5.27). 03/2003; 62(1):129-34. DOI: 10.1079/PNS2002221
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies find that whole-grain intake is protective against cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. Potential mechanisms for this protection are diverse since whole grains are rich in nutrients and phytochemicals. First, whole grains are concentrated sources of dietary fibre, resistant starch and oligosaccharides, carbohydrates that escape digestion in the small intestine and are fermented in the gut, producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). SCFA lower colonic pH, serve as an energy source for the colonocytes and may alter blood lipids. These improvements in the gut environment may provide immune protection beyond the gut. Second, whole grains are rich in antioxidants, including trace minerals and phenolic compounds, and these compounds have been linked to disease prevention. Additionally, whole grains mediate insulin and glucose responses. Although lower glycaemic load and glycaemic index have been linked to diabetes and obesity, risk of cancers such as colon and breast cancer have also been linked to high intake of readily-available carbohydrate. Finally, whole grains contain many other compounds that may protect against chronic disease. These compounds include phytate, phyto-oestrogens such as lignan, plant stanols and sterols, and vitamins and minerals. As a consequence of the traditional models of conducting nutrition studies on isolated nutrients, few studies exist on the biological effects of increased whole-grain intake. The few whole-grain feeding studies that are available show improvements in biomarkers with whole-grain consumption, such as weight loss, blood lipid improvement and antioxidant protection.

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    • "In recent years, the growing attention towards evaluating plant constituents and extracts on a pharmacological basis and the screening of more effective and safe hypocholesterolemic agents constitute an interesting research field (Shakirin et al., 2012; Casamassima et al., 2013; Pozzo et al., 2014). Grains are a staple food for both humans and animals (Spiller, 2002), and they contain a wide variety of nutritional components (Slavin, 2003), such as fiber, vitamins, minerals, phenols, carotenoids , lignans, b-glucan and inulin. Grains are especially rich in polyphenols, a large and heterogenous group of bioactive phytochemical compounds. "
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    • "Therefore, metabolic syndrome is considered a fatal consequence of visceral obesity (Scaglione et al., 2010). A numerous studies reported that a high intake of dietary fiber, including gum arabic (GA) associated with beneficial effects on fat metabolism (Ali et al., 2009; Slavin, 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a global health concern associated with high morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic strategies include surgery and synthetic drugs, which may cause high costs and serious complications. High levels of glucocorticoid in adipose tissue generated by the intracellular enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) are associated with the pathogenesis of obesity. Gum arabic (GA, Acacia senegal) works as a dietary fiber that helps reduce body fat deposition. Yet, the effects of the dietary fiber, gum arabic (GA) on visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and its association with 11β-HSD1 have not been well studied.
    Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bcdf.2015.06.004
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    • "Fibre and resistant starch, respectively, resist upper intestinal digestion and pass into the lower intestine to be fermented by the micro flora in the colon. Short chain fatty acids are formed in this process, playing a pivotal role in the colon health (Slavin 2003). The physiological functions include improving glycaemic response and colon health, providing bulk and thus decreasing caloric intake, modulating lipid oxidation, or cholesterol metabolism (Mikušová et al. 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to find out the impact of partial substitution of fine wholemeal oat flour by fermented oat sourdough in wheat-oat bread formula on the basic bread constituents, organoleptic properties and to assess wheat-oat breads from qualitative and nutritional point. Fermentation of sourdough from a special fine wholemeal oat flour fraction was optimized using potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum resulted in 1010 CFU/gof vital bacterial cells and 2.95 g/l of lactic acid content. Wholemeal oat sourdough was characterized by stable gel consistency suitable for a technological application as a starter with 12.91 % of dry matter, pH value 4.6 and significantly reduced starch content up to 1.7 %. This type of fermented fine oat flour was incorporated into a novel bakery product up to 30 % of oat portion in wheat-oat bread according to consumer preferences. Final bread was characterized by high fibre (10.15 %) and β-glucan (3.09 %) content as well as low energy value (844 kJ/100 g) with the comparable rate of staling to the control sample without sourdough addition during 3 days of storage.
    Czech Journal of Food Sciences 03/2015; 33(2):118-125. DOI:10.17221/42/2014-CJFS · 0.68 Impact Factor
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