Slavin J. Why whole grains are protective: biological mechanisms. Proc Nutr Soc 62, 129

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, 1334 Eckles Avenue, St Paul, MN 55108, USA.
Proceedings of The Nutrition Society (Impact Factor: 5.27). 03/2003; 62(1):129-34. DOI: 10.1079/PNS2002221
Source: PubMed


Epidemiological studies find that whole-grain intake is protective against cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. Potential mechanisms for this protection are diverse since whole grains are rich in nutrients and phytochemicals. First, whole grains are concentrated sources of dietary fibre, resistant starch and oligosaccharides, carbohydrates that escape digestion in the small intestine and are fermented in the gut, producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). SCFA lower colonic pH, serve as an energy source for the colonocytes and may alter blood lipids. These improvements in the gut environment may provide immune protection beyond the gut. Second, whole grains are rich in antioxidants, including trace minerals and phenolic compounds, and these compounds have been linked to disease prevention. Additionally, whole grains mediate insulin and glucose responses. Although lower glycaemic load and glycaemic index have been linked to diabetes and obesity, risk of cancers such as colon and breast cancer have also been linked to high intake of readily-available carbohydrate. Finally, whole grains contain many other compounds that may protect against chronic disease. These compounds include phytate, phyto-oestrogens such as lignan, plant stanols and sterols, and vitamins and minerals. As a consequence of the traditional models of conducting nutrition studies on isolated nutrients, few studies exist on the biological effects of increased whole-grain intake. The few whole-grain feeding studies that are available show improvements in biomarkers with whole-grain consumption, such as weight loss, blood lipid improvement and antioxidant protection.

1 Follower
13 Reads
    • "Whole-grain products, such as whole-grain bread, have been recommended because of their high content of dietary fibre, B-vitamins , vitamin E and several minerals of which P, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn are the most important. Each component may partly account for its beneficial effects on human health (Slavin, 2003). However, the main parts of minerals in cereals are complexly bounded to phytic acid (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexaphosphate) as phytate, consequently reducing their bioavailability (Febles, Arias, Hardisson, Rodríquez-Alvarez, & Sierra, 2002; Kumar, Sinha, Makkar, & Becker, 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Whole-grain foods play an important role in human diet as they are relatively rich in minerals, however, the absorption of those minerals in human gut can be very low due to high content of the mineral binding phytate. Therefore, the object of this study was to identify phytase-active lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which could be used as a starter to increase mineral bioavailability in whole-meal bread. Hence, LAB isolates were isolated from Lithuanian sourdoughs, tested for phytase activity, and phytase active isolates were identified. Studies of phytase activity of the isolates were carried out at conditions optimal for leavening of bread dough (pH 5.5 and 30°C). The phytase active isolates belonged to the species Lactobacillus panis, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Phytase activities of the tested LAB isolates were both extra- and intra-cellular. The highest extracellular phytase production was found in L.panis with a volumetric phytase activity of 140U/mL. Phytate degradation in whole-wheat dough fermented with L.panis or L.fermentum was 90% and 70%, respectively.
    Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie 09/2015; 63(1):766-772. DOI:10.1016/j.lwt.2015.03.018 · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In recent years, the growing attention towards evaluating plant constituents and extracts on a pharmacological basis and the screening of more effective and safe hypocholesterolemic agents constitute an interesting research field (Shakirin et al., 2012; Casamassima et al., 2013; Pozzo et al., 2014). Grains are a staple food for both humans and animals (Spiller, 2002), and they contain a wide variety of nutritional components (Slavin, 2003), such as fiber, vitamins, minerals, phenols, carotenoids , lignans, b-glucan and inulin. Grains are especially rich in polyphenols, a large and heterogenous group of bioactive phytochemical compounds. "

  • Source
    • "Therefore, metabolic syndrome is considered a fatal consequence of visceral obesity (Scaglione et al., 2010). A numerous studies reported that a high intake of dietary fiber, including gum arabic (GA) associated with beneficial effects on fat metabolism (Ali et al., 2009; Slavin, 2003). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a global health concern associated with high morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic strategies include surgery and synthetic drugs, which may cause high costs and serious complications. High levels of glucocorticoid in adipose tissue generated by the intracellular enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) are associated with the pathogenesis of obesity. Gum arabic (GA, Acacia senegal) works as a dietary fiber that helps reduce body fat deposition. Yet, the effects of the dietary fiber, gum arabic (GA) on visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and its association with 11β-HSD1 have not been well studied.
    Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bcdf.2015.06.004
Show more


13 Reads