Effects of quercetin on liver damage in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis.
ABSTRACT Flavonoids are reported to exhibit a wide variety of biological effects, including antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. Evidence of oxidative reactions is often associated with various chronic disease processes characterized by accumulation of connective tissue. This study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of chronic administration of the flavonoid quercetin (150 micromol/kg body wt/day intraperitoneally) in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrosis. In animals rendered cirrhotic by administration of carbon tetrachloride for 16 weeks, cell necrosis, fibrosis, and inflammatory infiltration were found. Histological abnormalities were accompanied by a higher hepatic content of collagen and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was significantly increased in the liver. Treatment with quercetin during 3 weeks improved liver histology and reduced collagen content, iNOS expression, and lipid peroxidation. Those effects were associated with an increased total peroxyl radical-trapping antioxidant capacity of liver. We conclude that quercetin is effective in this model of liver damage.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Brassica juncea is an economically important plant that has been well-known in India for centuries for its medicinal and nutritive values. The broad spectrum of beneﬁ cial effects of the seeds perceived with this plant warrants further exploration of B. juncea seeds as a potential source for obtaining pharmacologically standardized phytotherapeutics, which could be potentially useful. The objective of the present study was to perform the pharmacognosy of mustards seeds inclusive of qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis, ﬁ ngerprinting by infrared spectroscopy and high performance thin layer chromatography analysis and toxicity assessment in vitro. Methods: Different sections of seeds were taken and stained with 0.1% phloroglucinol for microscopic examination. The seeds were extracted by 80% alcohol on a rotary shaker to perform phytochemical analysis and ﬁ ngerprinting. The toxicity assessment of this extract was performed on human dermal ﬁ broblast cells. Results: Microscopic examination of seeds showed characteristic features of mustard seeds. The extraction of these seeds by 80% alcohol resulted in IC50 value of 103 ± 3 μg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl radical scavenging assay. The ﬁngerprinting analysis of this extract indicated probable presence of sinigrin, quercetin, vanillin, catechin, vitamin E and sulfur-containing compounds. This extract exhibited 50% toxicity (IC50) at 1.79 mg/mL. Conclusion: The result achieved will be used to assess the therapeutic efﬁ cacy of seed extracts for future pharmacological evaluations.Pharmacognosy Research 09/2014; 6(5):47-54.
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ABSTRACT: The liver is an important organ for its ability to transform xenobiotics, making the liver tissue a prime target for toxic substances. The carotenoid bixin present in annatto is an antioxidant that can protect cells and tissues against the deleterious effects of free radicals. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of bixin on liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats.Biological research. 09/2014; 47(1):49.
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ABSTRACT: The hepatopulmonary syndrome is characterized by hepatic dysfunction and presence of dilated pulmonary vessels, with alterations in air diffusion that can be demonstrated in the experimental model of common bile duct ligation. To evaluate the oxidative stress in pulmonary tissue of cirrhotic rats with common bile duct ligation. We used 12 male Wistar rats weighing between 200-300 g divided in two groups: control (Co = 6) and cirrhotic (Ci = 6). We evaluated aminotransferases, arterial gasometry, lipoperoxidation and chemoluminescence), and antioxidant enzymatic activity with superoxide dismutase. The tissues analyzed for hepatopulmonary syndrome were cirrhotic liver and lung. The animals with common bile duct ligation showed alterations in the following aminotransferases: aspartate aminotransferase, Co = 105.3 +/- 43/Ci = 500.5 +/- 90.3, alanine aminotransferase, Co = 78.75 +/- 37.7/Ci = 162.75 +/- 35.4, and alkaline phosphatase, Co = 160 +/- 20.45/Ci = 373 +/- 45.44. The lipoperoxidation and the antioxidant response had significant differences between the groups when evaluated in lung (lipoperoxidation) Co = 0.87 +/- 0.3/Ci = 2.01 +/- 0.9, chemoluminescence Co = 16008.41 +/- 1171.45/Ci = 20250.36 +/- 827.82 superoxide dismutase Co = 6.66 +/- 1.34/Ci = 16.06 +/- 2.67. Our results suggest that in this experimental model of cirrhosis using common bile duct ligation, there is an increase in lipoperoxidation in pulmonary tissue as well as an increase in superoxide dismutase's antioxidant activity, suggesting a pulmonary injury caused by secondary biliary cirrhosis.Arquivos de Gastroenterologia 12/2005; 42(4):244-8.