Effects of quercetin on liver damage in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis.
ABSTRACT Flavonoids are reported to exhibit a wide variety of biological effects, including antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. Evidence of oxidative reactions is often associated with various chronic disease processes characterized by accumulation of connective tissue. This study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of chronic administration of the flavonoid quercetin (150 micromol/kg body wt/day intraperitoneally) in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrosis. In animals rendered cirrhotic by administration of carbon tetrachloride for 16 weeks, cell necrosis, fibrosis, and inflammatory infiltration were found. Histological abnormalities were accompanied by a higher hepatic content of collagen and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was significantly increased in the liver. Treatment with quercetin during 3 weeks improved liver histology and reduced collagen content, iNOS expression, and lipid peroxidation. Those effects were associated with an increased total peroxyl radical-trapping antioxidant capacity of liver. We conclude that quercetin is effective in this model of liver damage.
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is a normal phenomenon in the body. Under normal conditions, the physiologically important intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are maintained at low levels by various enzyme systems participating in the in vivo redox homeostasis. Therefore, oxidative stress can also be viewed as an imbalance between the prooxidants and antioxidants in the body. For the last two decades, oxidative stress has been one of the most burning topics among the biological researchers all over the world. Several reasons can be assigned to justify its importance: knowledge about reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production and metabolism; identification of biomarkers for oxidative damage; evidence relating manifestation of chronic and some acute health problems to oxidative stress; identification of various dietary antioxidants present in plant foods as bioactive molecules; and so on. This review discusses the importance of oxidative stress in the body growth and development as well as proteomic and genomic evidences of its relationship with disease development, incidence of malignancies and autoimmune disorders, increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases, and an interplay with prooxidants and antioxidants for maintaining a sound health, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:761264. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Brassica juncea is an economically important plant that has been well-known in India for centuries for its medicinal and nutritive values. The broad spectrum of beneﬁ cial effects of the seeds perceived with this plant warrants further exploration of B. juncea seeds as a potential source for obtaining pharmacologically standardized phytotherapeutics, which could be potentially useful. The objective of the present study was to perform the pharmacognosy of mustards seeds inclusive of qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis, ﬁ ngerprinting by infrared spectroscopy and high performance thin layer chromatography analysis and toxicity assessment in vitro. Methods: Different sections of seeds were taken and stained with 0.1% phloroglucinol for microscopic examination. The seeds were extracted by 80% alcohol on a rotary shaker to perform phytochemical analysis and ﬁ ngerprinting. The toxicity assessment of this extract was performed on human dermal ﬁ broblast cells. Results: Microscopic examination of seeds showed characteristic features of mustard seeds. The extraction of these seeds by 80% alcohol resulted in IC50 value of 103 ± 3 μg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl radical scavenging assay. The ﬁngerprinting analysis of this extract indicated probable presence of sinigrin, quercetin, vanillin, catechin, vitamin E and sulfur-containing compounds. This extract exhibited 50% toxicity (IC50) at 1.79 mg/mL. Conclusion: The result achieved will be used to assess the therapeutic efﬁ cacy of seed extracts for future pharmacological evaluations.Pharmacognosy Research 09/2014; 6(5):47-54.
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ABSTRACT: Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids, myomas) are the most common benign tumors of female reproductive tract. They are highly prevalent, with 70-80% of women burdened by the end of their reproductive years. Fibroids are a leading cause of pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding, pressure on the bladder, miscarriage, and infertility. They are the leading indication for hysterectomy, and costs exceed 6 billion dollars annually in the United States. Unfortunately, no long-term medical treatments are available. Dysregulation of inflammatory processes are thought to be involved in the initiation of leiomyoma and extracellular matrix deposition, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis are the key cellular events implicated in leiomyoma growth. In modern pharmaceutical industries, dietary phytochemicals are used as source of new potential drugs for many kinds of tumors. Dietary phytochemicals may exert therapeutic effects by interfering with key cellular events of the tumorigenesis process. At present, a negligible number of phytochemicals have been tested as therapeutic agents against fibroids. In this context, our aim was to introduce some of the potential dietary phytochemicals that have shown anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antifibrotic, and antiangiogenic activities in different biological systems. This review could be useful to stimulate the evaluation of these phytochemicals as possible therapies for uterine fibroids.Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 06/2014; · 4.31 Impact Factor