Effects of quercetin on liver damage in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis.
ABSTRACT Flavonoids are reported to exhibit a wide variety of biological effects, including antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. Evidence of oxidative reactions is often associated with various chronic disease processes characterized by accumulation of connective tissue. This study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of chronic administration of the flavonoid quercetin (150 micromol/kg body wt/day intraperitoneally) in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrosis. In animals rendered cirrhotic by administration of carbon tetrachloride for 16 weeks, cell necrosis, fibrosis, and inflammatory infiltration were found. Histological abnormalities were accompanied by a higher hepatic content of collagen and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was significantly increased in the liver. Treatment with quercetin during 3 weeks improved liver histology and reduced collagen content, iNOS expression, and lipid peroxidation. Those effects were associated with an increased total peroxyl radical-trapping antioxidant capacity of liver. We conclude that quercetin is effective in this model of liver damage.
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ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the possibility of obtaining total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) indexes in homogenates and their cytosolic fractions by a procedure based on the quenching of luminol luminescence induced by the thermolysis of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane). Measurements were performed in rat brain, liver, kidney, and heart homogenates. TRAP indexes can be easily determined both in homogenates and their cytosolic fractions. The results obtained indicate that heart homogenates are the least and liver homogenates the most protected of the systems considered. Glutathione is the measured antioxidant that contributes the most to TRAP values, while uric acid makes a significant contribution only in liver. A calculation of theoretical TRAP values from the measured concentrations of the main antioxidants (glutathione, uric acid, ascorbic acid, and alpha-tocopherol) for the different homogenates shows that, in most tissues (liver, brain, and kidney), nearly 50% of the experimentally determined TRAP values are not accounted for. This difference is mainly due to the contribution of proteins to the measured TRAP.Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 05/2001; 388(2):261-6. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the mechanism of nitric oxide (NO) action on hepatic methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) activity using S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) as NO donor. Hepatic MAT plays an essential role in the metabolism of methionine, converting this amino acid into S-adenosylmethionine. Hepatic MAT exists in two oligomeric states: as a tetramer (MAT I) and as a dimer (MAT III) of the same subunit. This subunit contains 10 cysteine residues. In MAT I, S-nitrosylation of 1 thiol residue per subunit was associated with a marked inactivation of the enzyme (about 70%) that was reversed by glutathione (GSH). In MAT III, S-nitrosylation of 3 thiol residues per subunit led to a similar inactivation of the enzyme, which was also reversed by GSH. Incubation of isolated rat hepatocytes with S-nitrosoglutathione monoethyl ester (EGSNO), a NO donor permeable through the cellular membrane, induced a dose-dependent inactivation of MAT that was reversed by removing the NO donor from the cell suspension. MAT, purified from isolated rat hepatocytes, contained S-nitrosothiol groups and the addition of increasing concentrations of EGSNO to the hepatocyte suspension led to a progressive S-nitrosylation of the enzyme. Removal of the NO donor from the incubation media resulted in loss of most NO groups associated to the enzyme. Finally, induction in rats of the production of NO, by the administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induced a fivefold increase in the S-nitrosylation of hepatic MAT, which led to a marked inactivation of the enzyme. Thus, the activity of liver MAT appears to be regulated in vivo by S-nitrosylation.Hepatology 11/1998; 28(4):1051-7. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Effects of antioxidants, resveratrol, quercetin, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the functions of cultured rat hepatic stellate cells and Kupffer cells were studied. These compounds dose-dependently suppressed serum-dependent proliferation of stellate cells as determined by [3H]thymidine and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine uptake. Expression of smooth muscle alpha-actin was suppressed by a high dose of resveratrol and quercetin. These phenolic compounds also suppressed inositol phosphate metabolism, tyrosine phosphorylation, and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation in platelet-derived growth factor/BB-stimulated stellate cells. Moreover, the phenolic compounds selectively reduced the level of cell cycle protein cyclin D1 in stellate cells. Thus, resveratrol and quercetin might inhibit stellate cell activation by perturbing signal transduction pathway and cell cycle protein expression, whereas mechanism of potent antiproliferative effect of NAC remains to be elucidated. On the other hand, kinetic analysis showed that production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Kupffer cells was strongly inhibited by resveratrol and quercetin but not by NAC. Although expression of messenger RNAs for inducible NO synthase and TNF-alpha was not affected by the phenolic compounds, cellular levels of inducible NO synthase and TNF-alpha secretion were suppressed significantly, indicating the posttranscriptional process of generating these proteins might be affected predominantly by these phenolic compounds. Thus, NAC and these phenolic compounds may have therapeutic potential against liver injury by regulating functions of hepatic stellate cells and Kupffer cells.Hepatology 06/1998; 27(5):1265-74. · 12.00 Impact Factor