Genome function and nuclear architecture: from gene expression to nanoscience.
ABSTRACT Biophysical, chemical, and nanoscience approaches to the study of nuclear structure and activity have been developing recently and hold considerable promise. A selection of fundamental problems in genome organization and function are reviewed and discussed in the context of these new perspectives and approaches. Advancing these concepts will require coordinated networks of physicists, chemists, and materials scientists collaborating with cell, developmental, and genome biologists.
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ABSTRACT: The nucleus is physically distinct from the cytoplasm in ways that suggest new ideas and approaches for interrogating the operation of this organelle. Chemical bond formation and breakage underlie the lives of cells, but as this special issue of Molecular Biology of the Cell attests, the nonchemical aspects of cell nuclei present a new frontier to biologists and biophysicists.Molecular Biology of the Cell 11/2014; 25(22):3466-9. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E14-03-0790 · 4.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are a set of highly conserved proteins that are involved in cellular repair and protective mechanisms. In order to identify potential stress-sensitive sites in differentiated SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells, localization of two inducible members of the HSPA (HSP70) family was investigated, namely HSPA6 (HSP70B’) and HSPA1A (HSP70-1). Following heat shock, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-tagged HSPA6 and HSPA1A proteins localized to nuclear speckles that are enriched in RNA splicing factors (identified by SC35 and SON marker proteins) and then to the granular component of the nucleolus (identified by nucleophosmin). Subsequently, YFP-HSPA6 protein, but not YFP-HSPA1A, localized to the periphery of nuclear speckles that are sites of RNA transcription. The HSPA6 gene is present in the human genome but not in genomes of rat and mouse. Hence current animal models of neurodegenerative diseases are lacking a potentially protective member of the HSPA family.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Journal of Neurochemistry 10/2014; 131(6). DOI:10.1111/jnc.12970 · 4.24 Impact Factor