Determination of antiviral efficacy against lymphotropic herpesviruses utilizing flow cytometry.
ABSTRACT Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV-6), and human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) comprise a group of lymphotropic herpesviruses which are responsible for a wide range of diseases, including lymphoproliferative disorders and tumors. We have developed several flow cytometric assay (FACS) systems to evaluate antiviral efficacy against EBV, HHV-6 and HHV-8. Assays using either EBV or HHV-8, members of the gammaherpesvirus subfamily, have shown that while EBV responds well to acyclovir (ACV), HHV-8 was most sensitive to cidofovir (CDV). Since HHV-6 strains are divided into two sub-groups, A and B, we evaluated antiviral efficacy for strains from each group. The group A strain, HHV-6(GS), was inhibited by foscarnet (PFA), CDV and ganciclovir (GCV) in both Sup-T1 and HSB-2 cell lines. HHV-6(Z-29), a representative group B virus, was inhibited by GCV and CDV but not by PFA. Our findings indicate that flow cytometry can be utilized to efficiently evaluate new antiviral agents against lymphotropic herpesviruses and that the results are comparable to those obtained by other methods such as immunofluorescence.
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ABSTRACT: Numerous types of equine herpesviruses (EHV) continue to afflict horses resulting in a variety of clinical manifestations. While many of the clinical manifestations of EHV are self-limiting or require only supportive care, some clinical expressions of EHV infections cause severe risk to the horse's overall health and can result in abortion, long-term deficits or death. Antiviral medications are infrequently utilised therapeutics in equine medicine and their exact efficacy is largely unknown. However, the use of antiviral medications may potentially decrease convalescent time and improve outcome in horses with EHV-related diseases. Thus, equine practitioners should consider the potential use of antiviral medications in the future. The purpose of this article is to familiarise the equine practitioner with current information in regard to antiviral medications and their potential uses in equine medicine.Equine Veterinary Education - EQUINE VET EDUC. 01/2010; 22(5):244-252.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There have been no reports of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) encephalitis treatment based on both HHV-6 DNA load and the antiviral agent's concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). PATIENT: A 20-year-old male with a hematological malignancy developed HHV-6 encephalitis 15 days after unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT). He had fever, chest pain, memory impairment, and insomnia. His CSF showed no increased cell counts, but the amount of HHV-6 DNA was elevated to 2.0 × 10(6) copies/ìgDNA. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head revealed abnormal high-intensity signals in the left limbic system on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted images. Intravenous administration of ganciclovir (GCV) was initiated at 5 mg/kg every 12 h on day 18, and was continued until day 137. The amount of HHV-6 DNA in the plasma became undetectable on day 25. The HHV-6 load in the CSF decreased to 1.5 × 10(3) copies/ìgDNA on day 32, and reached undetectable levels on day 53. The mean concentration of GCV 1 h after an infusion of 5 mg/kg was 4.12 mg/mL in plasma and 0.7 mg/mL in CSF. The chest pain and insomnia disappeared on days 35 and 47, respectively. Memory defects recovered up to day 85.Infection 02/2013; 41(1):219-223. · 2.44 Impact Factor