Antibiotics improve survival and alter the inflammatory profile in a murine model of sepsis from Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.
ABSTRACT Differing antibiotic regimens can influence both survival and the inflammatory state in sepsis. We investigated whether the addition and/or type of antimicrobial agent could effect mortality in a murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia-induced sepsis and if antibiotics altered systemic levels of cytokines. FVB/N mice were subjected to intratracheal injection of pathogenic bacteria and were given gentamicin, imipenem, or 0.9% NaCl 2 h after surgery, which continued every 12 h for a total of six doses. Survival at 7 days (n = 24 in each group) was 100% for mice given gentamicin, 88% for mice given imipenem, and 8% for sham mice treated with 0.9% NaCl (P < 0.0001). Systemic interleukin (IL) 6 levels were assayed 6 h postoperatively on all mice to see if they were predictive of outcome. Plasma IL-6 levels above 3,600 pg/mL were associated with a 100% mortality, levels under 1,200 pg/mL were associated with a 100% survival, and levels between 1,200 and 3,600 pg/mL had no utility in predicting mortality. In a separate experiment, mice were sacrificed at 3, 6, 12 or 24 h after instillation of P. aeruginosa and were assayed for levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12. Significant alterations in the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 were present at all time points except 3 h between mice treated with antibiotics and sham controls. In contrast, statistically significant differences in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were present between the groups only at 6 h, and levels of IL-12 were similar at all time points. These results indicate that both gentamicin and imipenem increase survival at least 10-fold in a model of pneumonia-induced monomicrobial sepsis, and this is predominantly associated with a down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines.
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ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a lethal disease caused by a systemic microbial infection that spreads via the bloodstream to overwhelm the body's defenses. Current therapeutic approaches are often suboptimal, in part, because they do not fully eliminate the pathogen, and hence the source of deadly toxins. Here we describe an extracorporeal blood cleansing device to selectively remove pathogens from contaminated blood and thereby enhance the patient's response to antibiotic therapy. Immunomagnetic microbeads were modified to create magnetic opsonins that were used to cleanse flowing human whole blood of Candida albicans fungi, a leading cause of sepsis-related deaths. The micromagnetic-microfluidic blood cleansing device generates magnetic field gradients across vertically stacked channels to enable continuous and high throughput separation of fungi from flowing whole blood. A multiplexed version of the device containing four parallel channels achieved over 80% clearance of fungi from contaminated blood at a flow rate of 20 mL/h in a single pass, a rate 1000 times faster than a previously described prototype micromagnetic-microfluidic cell separation system. These results provide the first proof-of-principle that a multiplexed micromagnetic-microfluidic separation system can be used to cleanse pathogens from flowing human blood at a rate and separation efficiency that is relevant for clinical applications.Lab on a Chip 06/2009; 9(9):1171-7. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Severe weakness of the respiratory muscles, with attendant respiratory failure and death, has been documented in sepsis. In this study, we show that during murine pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, multiple proinflammatory genes are up-regulated not only within the lungs, but also within the diaphragm. Significant induction of TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-18 gene expression occurred within the diaphragm in a bacterial dose-dependent manner. We determined whether the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 could blunt proinflammatory gene expression within the diaphragm under these conditions. The IL-10 receptor was found to be expressed by the diaphragm in vivo as well as in primary diaphragmatic muscle cell cultures. Transduction of myoblasts with an adenoviral vector (Ad-IL-10) induced strong IL-10 expression, and intramuscular injection of the same vector in vivo produced significant increases in IL-10 serum levels. Ad-IL-10 treatment of mice infected with P. aeruginosa significantly inhibited the induction of proinflammatory cytokines within the diaphragm, but not in the infected lungs. Ad-IL-10 treatment also led to greatly improved diaphragmatic force production in infected mice. These results suggest that pulmonary infection triggers proinflammatory gene expression by the diaphragm along with diaphragmatic weakness. Shifting the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in favor of the latter by IL-10 gene delivery was able to restore normal diaphragmatic force-generating capacity under these conditions, suggesting a possible avenue for therapeutic intervention.American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 05/2007; 36(4):504-12. · 4.15 Impact Factor
- Intensivmedizin Und Notfallmedizin. 01/2006; 43(3):189-201.