Article

Architecture of initiation-competent 12-subunit RNA polymerase II.

Institute of Biochemistry and Gene Center, University of Munich, Feodor-Lynen-Strasse 25, 81377 Munich, Germany.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 07/2003; 100(12):6964-8. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1030608100
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT RNA polymerase (Pol) II consists of a 10-polypeptide catalytic core and the two-subunit Rpb4/7 complex that is required for transcription initiation. Previous structures of the Pol II core revealed a "clamp," which binds the DNA template strand via three "switch regions," and a flexible "linker" to the C-terminal repeat domain (CTD). Here we derived a model of the complete Pol II by fitting structures of the core and Rpb4/7 to a 4.2-A crystallographic electron density map. Rpb4/7 protrudes from the polymerase "upstream face," on which initiation factors assemble for promoter DNA loading. Rpb7 forms a wedge between the clamp and the linker, restricting the clamp to a closed position. The wedge allosterically prevents entry of the promoter DNA duplex into the active center cleft and induces in two switch regions a conformation poised for template-strand binding. Interaction of Rpb4/7 with the linker explains Rpb4-mediated recruitment of the CTD phosphatase to the CTD during Pol II recycling. The core-Rpb7 interaction and some functions of Rpb4/7 are apparently conserved in all eukaryotic and archaeal RNA polymerases but not in the bacterial enzyme.

0 Followers
 · 
93 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transcription of eukaryotic protein-coding genes commences with the assembly of a conserved initiation complex, which consists of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and the general transcription factors, at promoter DNA. After two decades of research, the structural basis of transcription initiation is emerging. Crystal structures of many components of the initiation complex have been resolved, and structural information on Pol II complexes with general transcription factors has recently been obtained. Although mechanistic details await elucidation, available data outline how Pol II cooperates with the general transcription factors to bind to and open promoter DNA, and how Pol II directs RNA synthesis and escapes from the promoter.
    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 02/2015; DOI:10.1038/nrm3952 · 36.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Within a complex with Rai1, the 5'-3' exoribonuclease Rat1 promotes termination of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) on protein-coding genes, but its underlying molecular mechanism is still poorly understood. Using in vitro transcription termination assays, we have found that RNAPII is prone to more effective termination by Rat1/Rai1 when its catalytic site is disrupted due to NTP misincorporation, implying that paused RNAPII, which is often found in vivo near termination sites, could adopt a similar configuration to Rat1/Rai1 and trigger termination. Intriguingly, yeast Rat1/Rai1 does not terminate Escherichia coli RNAP, implying that a specific interaction between Rat1/Rai1 and RNAPII may be required for termination. Furthermore, the efficiency of termination increases as the RNA transcript undergoing degradation by Rat1 gets longer, which suggests that Rat1 may generate a driving force for dissociating RNAPII from the template while degrading the nascent transcripts to catch up to the polymerase. These results indicate that multiple mechanistic features contribute to Rat1-mediated termination of RNAPII. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
    Nucleic Acids Research 02/2015; 43(5). DOI:10.1093/nar/gkv133 · 8.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is composed of tandem repeats of the heptapeptide Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7. The CTD of Pol II undergoes reversible phosphorylation during the transcription cycle, mainly at Ser2, Ser5, and Ser7. Dynamic changes in the phosphorylation patterns of the CTD are responsible for stage-specific recruitment of various factors involved in RNA processing, histone modification, and transcription elongation/termination. Human RNA polymerase II-associated protein 2 (RPAP2) was originally identified as a Pol II-associated protein and was subsequently shown to function as a novel Ser5-specific CTD phosphatase. Although a recent study suggested that RPAP2 is required for the efficient expression of small nuclear RNA genes, the role of RPAP2 in controlling the expression of protein-coding genes is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the C-terminal region of RPAP2 interacts directly with the Pol II subunit Rpb6. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses of the MYC and GAPDH protein-coding genes revealed that RPAP2 occupied the coding and 3' regions. Notably, siRNA-mediated knockdown of RPAP2 caused defects in 3'-end formation of the MYC and GAPDH pre-mRNAs. These results suggest that RPAP2 controls Pol II activity through a direct interaction with Rpb6 and participates in pre-mRNA 3'-end formation.
    12/2014; 8(6):255-61. DOI:10.5582/ddt.2014.01044

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from