Structure of the xyloglucan produced by suspension-cultured tomato cells.
ABSTRACT The xyloglucan secreted by suspension-cultured tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cells was structurally characterized by analysis of the oligosaccharides generated by treating the polysaccharide with a xyloglucan-specific endoglucanase (XEG). These oligosaccharide subunits were chemically reduced to form the corresponding oligoglycosyl alditols, which were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Thirteen of the oligoglycosyl alditols were structurally characterized by a combination of matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Nine of the oligoglycosyl alditols (GXGGol, XXGGol, GSGGol, XSGGol, LXGGol, XTGGol, LSGGol, LLGGol, and LTGGol, [see, Fry, S.C.; York, W.S., et al., Physiologia Plantarum 1993, 89, 1-3, for this nomenclature]) are derived from oligosaccharide subunits that have a cellotetraose backbone. Very small amounts of oligoglycosyl alditols (XGGol, XGGXXGGol, XXGGXGGol, and XGGXSGGol) derived from oligosaccharide subunits that have a cellotriose or celloheptaose backbone were also purified and characterized. The results demonstrate that the xyloglucan secreted by suspension-cultured tomato cells is very complex and is composed predominantly of 'XXGG-type' subunits with a cellotetraose backbone. The rigorous characterization of the oligoglycosyl alditols and assignment of their 1H and 13C NMR spectra constitute a robust data set that can be used as the basis for rapid and accurate structural profiling of xyloglucans produced by Solanaceous plant species and the characterization of enzymes involved in the synthesis, modification, and breakdown of these polysaccharides.
SourceAvailable from: Lifeng Liu12/2014; 3(4):526-542. DOI:10.3390/plants3040526
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ABSTRACT: Putative XyG xylosyltransferases from Tropaeolum majus (nasturtium) and Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) homologous to characterized Arabidopsis genes were identified and shown to functionally complement Arabidopsis mutants lacking xyloglucan demonstrating they represent xyloglucan xylosyltransferases. Xyloglucan is a major hemicellulose in the plant cell wall and is important for the structural organization of the wall. The fine structure of xyloglucan can vary dependent on plant species and tissue type. Most vascular seed-bearing plants including Arabidopsis thaliana and nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) have a xyloglucan structure, in which three out of four backbone glucosyl-residues are substituted with xylosyl-residues. In contrast, the xyloglucan found in plants of the Solanaceae family, which includes tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), is typically less xylosylated with only two of the four backbone glucosyl-residues substituted with xylosyl-residues. To investigate the genetics of xyloglucan xylosylation, candidate xyloglucan xylosyltransferase genes (XXTs) homologous to known A. thaliana XXTs were cloned from nasturtium and tomato. These candidate XXTs were expressed in the A. thaliana xxt1/2 double and xxt1/2/5 triple mutant, whose walls lack detectable xyloglucan. Expression of the orthologs of XXT5 resulted in no detectable xyloglucan in the transgenic A. thaliana plants, consistent with a lack of xyloglucan in the A. thaliana xxt1/2 double mutant. However, transformation of both the tomato and nasturtium orthologs of AtXXT1 and AtXXT2 resulted in the production of xyloglucan with a xylosylation pattern similar to wild type A. thaliana indicating that both SlXXT2 and TmXXT2 likely have xylosyltransferase activity. As the expression of the SlXXT2 did not result in xyloglucan with a decreased xylosylation frequency found in tomato, this gene is not responsible for the unique xylosylation pattern found in the solanaceous plants.Planta 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00425-015-2243-2 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background and Aims In flowering plants, fertilization relies on the delivery of the sperm cells carried by the pollen tube to the ovule. During the tip growth of the pollen tube, proper assembly of the cell wall polymers is required to maintain the mechanical properties of the cell wall. Xyloglucan (XyG) is a cell wall polymer known for maintaining the wall integrity and thus allowing cell expansion. In most angiosperms, the XyG of somatic cells is fucosylated, except in the Asterid clade (including the Solanaceae), where the fucosyl residues are replaced by arabinose, presumably due to an adaptive and/or selective diversification. However, it has been shown recently that XyG of Nicotiana alata pollen tubes is mostly fucosylated. The objective of the present work was to determine whether such structural differences between somatic and gametophytic cells are a common feature of Nicotiana and Solanum (more precisely tomato) genera. Methods XyGs of pollen tubes of domesticated (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme and var. Saint-Pierre) and wild (S. pimpinellifolium and S. peruvianum) tomatoes and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) were analysed by immunolabelling, oligosaccharide mass profiling and GC-MS analyses. Key Results Pollen tubes from all the species were labelled with the mAb CCRC-M1, a monoclonal antibody that recognizes epitopes associated with fucosylated XyG motifs. Analyses of the cell wall did not highlight major structural differences between previously studied N. alata and N. tabacum XyG. In contrast, XyG of tomato pollen tubes contained fucosylated and arabinosylated motifs. The highest levels of fucosylated XyG were found in pollen tubes from the wild species. Conclusions The results clearly indicate that the male gametophyte (pollen tube) and the sporophyte have structurally different XyG. This suggests that fucosylated XyG may have an important role in the tip growth of pollen tubes, and that they must have a specific set of functional XyG fucosyltransferases, which are yet to be characterized.Annals of Botany 11/2014; DOI:10.1093/aob/mcu218 · 3.30 Impact Factor