Rapid recovery from T lymphopenia by CD28 superagonist therapy.
ABSTRACT Slow recovery of T-cell numbers and function contributes to the high incidence of life-threatening infections after cytotoxic cancer therapies. We have tested the therapeutic potential of a novel class of superagonistic CD28-specific antibodies that induce polyclonal T-cell proliferation without T-cell receptor engagement in an experimental rat model of T lymphopenia. We show that in lethally irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted hosts, CD28 superagonist is able to dramatically accelerate repopulation by a small inoculum of mature, allotype-marked T cells. CD28-driven recovery of CD4 cells was superior to that of CD8 T cells. CD28 superagonist- expanded CD4 T cells had maintained repertoire diversity and were functional both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that treatment with a human CD28-specific superagonist will protect T-lymphopenic patients from opportunistic infections.
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ABSTRACT: The costimulatory receptor CD28 and IL-4Ralpha containing cytokine receptors play key roles in controlling the size and quality of pathogen-specific immune responses. Thus, CD28-mediated costimulation is needed for effective primary T-cell expansion and for the generation and activation of regulatory T-cells (Treg cells), which protect from immunopathology. Similarly, IL-4Ralpha signals are required for alternative activation of macrophages, which counteract inflammation by type 1 responses. Furthermore,immune modulation by CD28 and IL-4 is interconnected through the promotion of IL-4 producing T-helper 2 cells by CD28 signals. Using conditionally IL-4Ralpha and CD28 deleting mice, as well as monoclonal antibodies, which block or stimulate CD28, or mAb that deplete Treg cells, we have studied the roles of CD28 and IL-4Ralpha in experimental mouse models of virus (influenza), intracellular bacteria (L. monocytogenes, M. tuberculosis), and parasite infections (T. congolense, L. major). We observed that in some, but not all settings, Treg cells and type 2 immune deviation, including activation of alternative macrophages can be manipulated to protect the host either from infection or from immunopathology with an overall beneficial outcome. Furthermore, we provide direct evidence that secondary CD8 T-cell responses to i.c. bacteria are dependent on CD28-mediated costimulation.Medical Microbiology and Immunology 04/2010; 199(3):239-46. · 3.83 Impact Factor
Article: Granzyme B- and Fas ligand-mediated cytotoxic function induced by mitogenic CD28 stimulation of human memory CD4+ T cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Some human memory CD4(+) T cells have cytotoxic functions best understood in the context of viral infections; however, their possible role in pathologic processes is understudied. The novel discovery that mitogenic CD28 antibodies induced proliferation and expansion of Tregs offered therapeutic promise for autoimmune disorders. However, the failed TGN1412 trial forced reassessment of this concept. As memory CD4(+) T cells are known to produce toxic molecules, including granzyme B (GrzB) and FasL, we wondered whether mitogenic CD28 was able to induce these cytotoxic molecules. A commercially available mitogenic human CD28 mAb (clone ANC28.1) was used to determine whether mitogenic CD28 induces cytotoxic function from human memory CD4(+) T cells. We found that stimulation of memory CD4(+) T cells by ANC28.1, as well as by conventional costimulation (CD3/CD28 mAb), robustly induced enzymatically active GrzB, along with increased surface expression of FasL. These functional phenotypes were induced in association with increased expression of T cell activation markers CD69 and CD25, and elimination of target cells by ANC28.1-activated memory CD4(+) T cells involved both GrzB and FasL. Additionally, ANC28.1-activated memory CD4(+) T cells caused disruption of epithelial cell monolayer integrity, which was partially mediated by GrzB. These findings reveal functions of memory CD4(+) T cells previously unknown to be induced by mitogenic CD28, and suggest that these pathogenic mechanisms may have been responsible for some of the widespread tissue destruction that occurred in the TGN1412 trial recipients.Journal of leukocyte biology 03/2012; 91(5):759-71. · 4.99 Impact Factor