Endocrine function in patients treated for carcinoma in situ in the testis with irradiation.
ABSTRACT CIS is found in the contralateral testis in 5% of the patients with testicular germ cell cancer. The management of CIS in the contralateral testis is important because the majority - if not all - cases of CIS will progress to invasive disease without treatment. It is well documented that testicular irradiation with a total dose of 14-20 Gy (2 Gy x 7-10) is an effective and safe treatment for CIS in the contralateral testis in patients with unilateral testicular germ cell cancer. However few relapses of testicular cancer have been observed in testis treated with these regimens and the data on 14 Gy are sparse. One study has indicated that more radiotherapy with lower doses per fraction could be useful, but more data are needed to confirm this. Endocrine testicular function has been shown to be impaired already before treatment in patients with CIS and is further impaired after testicular irradiation with 14-20 Gy (2 Gy x 7-10) and only minor dose dependency is seen in the impairment of Leydig cell function. The optimal treatment of CIS in the contralateral testicle in patients orchidectomised for testicular cancer seems to be local radiotherapy of the testis with CIS in order to preserve at least a part of the Leydig cell function. However, the optimal dose level has to be defined.
- SourceAvailable from: Aleksander Giwercman[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Based on evidence from morphological and histochemical studies and from clinical experience, the following hypotheses are proposed: carcinoma-in-situ (CIS) germ cells are malignant gonocytes; these CIS gonocytes have some capacity to regress into more primitive, totipotent embryonic cells which can give rise to all types of nonseminomatous germ cell tumours; the tumour germ cells of classical seminomas are malignant gonocytes derived from CIS gonocytes which have lost their ability to regress into totipotent embryonic cells; the ability of CIS gonocytes to regress into totipotent embryonic cells decreases with age, whereas the capacity to form classical seminoma cells is preserved; the transformation of CIS gonocytes into invasive tumours is dependent on factors such as gonadotrophins and/or testicular steroids; the pathogenesis of classical and spermatocytic seminoma are unrelated. As a consequence of these hypotheses an alternative nomenclature for carcinoma-in-situ, seminoma and dysgerminoma is suggested.International Journal of Andrology 03/1987; 10(1):19-28. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This prospective phase II study was designed to test the activity and toxicity of a regimen of fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CDDP) in combination with radiation therapy in the treatment of epidermoid cancer of the anal canal. Thirty-five consecutive patients with untreated epidermoid cancer of the anal canal were candidates for chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Staging of cancer was as follows: T1, 26%; T2, 60%; T3, 14%; and N1, 2,3, 26%. No patient had distant metastases. The treatment protocol consisted of two to three cycles of chemotherapy starting on days 1 and 21 and concurrent radiotherapy at a daily dose of 1.8 Gy up to a total dose of 36 to 38 Gy in 4 weeks, delivered to the anal region, perineum, middle and lower pelvis, and inguinal and external iliac nodes. Radiotherapy was then delivered to the anoperineal region and metastatic inguinal nodes to a total dose of 18 to 24 Gy in 10 fractions. Chemotherapy consisted of 24-hour intravenous (IV) infusion of 5-FU 750 mg/m2 on days 1 to 4 and CDDP 100 mg/m2 by 60-minute IV infusion on day 1. All patients received two cycles of chemotherapy; the second was delayed in three patients because of leukopenia that was evident in 11 (31%). In eight patients, a third cycle was added. They all experienced nausea or vomiting; one patient showed signs of cardiotoxicity and one developed proctitis, dermatitis, and diarrhea (grade 3). Complete regression (CR) was assessed in 33 patients (94%); nine patients with metastatic lymph nodes also had CR. Two patients had a partial response (PR); both underwent abdominoperineal resection, which was not curative in one. Two patients (6%) had a local recurrence; in one, this was associated with hepatic metastases. One of these patients underwent surgery and is alive after about 4 years, while the other is undergoing chemotherapy. After a median follow-up duration of 37 months, 94% of patients are alive without evidence of disease and 86% are colostomy-free. This regimen is well tolerated; its toxicity does not exceed that observed with the combination of 5-FU and mitomycin (MMC). Compared with our previous experience based on the classic CRT (5-FU, MMC, and radiation), the objective response rate observed with this new combination was similar. However, the local recurrence rate, observed in patients treated with the new regimen, was lower (6% v 24%). According to more recent data from the literature, primary CRT is the elective indication in epidermoid cancer of the anus and replacement of MMC with CDDP seems an effective and logical evolution.Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/1997; 14(12):3121-5. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN) is a consistent precursor of most invasive germ cell tumors, currently treated by radiotherapy with 20 Gy, which destroys TIN but preserves Leydig cells. Nevertheless, analysis has shown dose-dependent dysfunction even with low therapeutic doses of 20 Gy in some cases. Therefore, we tested a dose reduction regimen by delivering smaller fractional doses to enhance the tolerance of Leydig cells. Between 1993 and 1999, 9 patients were treated for TIN in a prospective multicenter trial. A total dose of 13 Gy was administered in 10 fractions of 1.3 Gy. Hormonal levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone were assayed serially. During a median follow-up time of 36 months, no patient showed evidence of local disease. A first postradiation biopsy was obtained 3-12 months after radiotherapy; 5 patients underwent a second biopsy 2-3 years after treatment. All biopsies showed a Sertoli cell-only pattern. Follicle-stimulating hormone levels continued to increase 1 year after radiotherapy, signaling eradicated spermiogenesis. Luteinizing hormone and testosterone remained within the normal range 2 years after radiotherapy. In the treatment of TIN, there seems to be a dose reduction potential to 13 Gy by lowering single fractional doses, which enhances the therapeutic ratio in favor of the Leydig cells.International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 08/2001; 50(4):909-13. · 4.52 Impact Factor