Microflora trigger colitis in mice deficient in selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase and induce Gpx2 gene expression.
ABSTRACT Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase isoenzymes-1 and -2 are the major glutathione-dependent H2O2-reducing activities in the epithelium of the mid- to lower gastrointestinal tract. The two isoenzymes protect mice against ileocolitis. We have found that luminal microflora are required for colitis to develop in mice deficient in GPX-1 and GPX-2 activity (GPX-DKO). Within 7 days of association with microflora, previously asymptomatic germ-free GPX-DKO mice developed severe acute colitis while their littermates with at least one wild-type Gpx1 or Gpx2 gene remained virtually symptom-free. Microflora also affected Gpx2 gene expression. Gpx2, but not Gpx1, mRNA levels were elevated 4-5 fold in the ileum and colon in conventionally reared or microflora-associated adult mice compared with germ-free mice. Since the gastrointestinal tract microflora undergo major changes 2-3 weeks after birth, from relatively benign to a potentially stressful composition, we examined postnatal Gpx2 gene expression. The jejunal and ileal GPX-2 activity levels were low in two to three week-old mice and increased 5-7 fold during the next two weeks. GPX-2 activity levels were correlated with the mRNA levels. Colon Gpx2 mRNA levels held steady at about 50% of adult levels from 12-21 days of age but were several times higher than ileal levels. Our results suggest that ileal Gpx2 mRNA and GPX-2 activity levels are induced by luminal microflora. This response is consistent with a role for GPX as an anti-inflammatory activity.
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ABSTRACT: Neutrophils contribute to hepatocellular injury in a number of acute inflammatory reactions. However, the molecular mechanism of parenchymal cell injury remains controversial. To address the issue of whether or not reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in the injury process, we used the galactosamine/endotoxin (Gal/ET) model of acute liver failure, which involves a neutrophil-mediated parenchymal cell injury. In C3Heb/FeJ mice, Gal/ET induced a significant increase of hepatic and plasma levels of glutathione disulfide (GSSG), an indicator of oxidant stress, selectively during the neutrophil-mediated injury phase. In glutathione peroxidase-deficient mice (Gpx1(-/-)), Gal/ET or Gal/tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) caused more severe neutrophil-mediated liver injury compared with wild-type animals. However, there was no significant difference in other critical parameters, e.g., activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), parenchymal cell apoptosis, and neutrophil sequestration in the liver. Our results suggest that neutrophil-derived ROS are responsible for an intracellular oxidant stress in hepatocytes after Gal/ET treatment. Because of the higher susceptibility of Gpx1(-/-) mice to a neutrophil-mediated injury, we conclude that peroxides generated by neutrophils diffused into hepatocytes and contributed to parenchymal cell death in vivo. Thus, strengthening defense mechanisms against ROS in target cells can attenuate excessive inflammatory injury without affecting host defense reactions.Hepatology 03/1999; 29(2):443-50. · 12.00 Impact Factor
- Pediatric Research 02/1969; 3(1):27-33. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Paneth cells in small intestinal crypts secrete microbicidal alpha-defensins in response to bacteria and bacterial antigens (Ayabe, T., Satchell, D. P., Wilson, C. L., Parks, W. C., Selsted, M. E., and Ouellette, A. J. (2000) Nat. Immunol. 1, 113- 38). We now report that the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel mIKCa1 modulates mouse Paneth cell secretion. mIKCa1 cDNA clones identified in a mouse small intestinal crypt library by hybridization to human IKCa1 cDNA probes were isolated, and DNA sequence analysis showed that they were identical to mIKCa1 cDNAs isolated from erythroid cells and liver. The genomic organization was found to be conserved between mouse and human IKCa1 as shown by comparisons of the respective cDNA and genomic sequences. Reverse transcriptase-PCR experiments using nested primers amplified mIKCa1 from the lower half of bisected crypts and from single Paneth cells, but not from the upper half of bisected crypts, villus epithelium, or undifferentiated crypt epithelial cells, suggesting a lineage-specific role for mIKCa1 in mouse small bowel epithelium. The cloned mIKCa1 channel was calcium-activated and was blocked by ten structurally diverse peptide and nonpeptide inhibitors with potencies spanning 9 orders of magnitude and indistinguishable from that of the human homologue. Consistent with channel blockade, charybdotoxin, clotrimazole, and the highly selective IKCa1 inhibitors, TRAM-34 and TRAM-39, inhibited (approximately 50%) Paneth cell secretion stimulated by bacteria or bacterial lipopolysaccharide, measured both as bactericidal activity and secreted cryptdin protein, but the inactive analog, TRAM-7, did not block secretion. These results demonstrate that mIKCa1 is modulator of Paneth cell alpha-defensin secretion and disclose an involvement in mucosal defense of the intestinal epithelium against ingested bacterial pathogens.Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2002; 277(5):3793-800. · 4.65 Impact Factor