Catch-up growth of head circumference of very low birth weight, small for gestational age preterm infants and mental development to adulthood.
ABSTRACT To examine the influence of postnatal energy quotient (EQ, energy intake/kg body weight per day) on head circumference (HC) growth and mental development of very low birth weight (VLBW), small for gestational age (SGA, <10th percentile) preterm infants.
SGA VLBW preterm infants (n = 46) with primarily symmetric intrauterine growth restriction were compared with 62 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) VLBW preterm infants and 73 term infants from the Bonn Longitudinal study.
Twenty-seven of 46 (59%) of the SGA preterm infants showed complete HC catch-up growth by the age of 12 months, but mostly before 6 months after term (HC catch-up group). These infants had significantly higher mean EQs from day 2 to 10 than the group of 19 infants without HC catch-up (EQ, 95 vs 78). Mean EQs correlated significantly with developmental and intelligence quotients (DQ/IQ) from 18 months to 6 years. As adults, the HC of the HC catch-up group was not significantly different from that of the AGA preterm infants, the term infants, and their parents. The group without HC catch-up had smaller HC as adults.
Our data suggest that early postnatal high-energy nutrient intake for SGA preterm infants is needed to promote HC catch-up growth and to prevent negative consequences of undernutrition.
- SourceAvailable from: Alfredo García-Alix[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We review the ability of head circumference (HC) at birth and head growth during the neonatal period to predict neurodevelopmental outcome, putting emphasis on new knowledge in this area. During infancy HC correlates closely with intracranial volume and constitutes an accurate predictor of cerebral volume. Both an abnormal head size at birth and an abnormal head growth during the neonatal period, can express brain damage or the presence of entities that involve varied degrees of neurological dysfunction in childhood. In general, the influence of head size or growth abnormalities on neurodevelopment is more related to the underlying etiology and/or the presence of structural diseases of the brain than with the HC alteration itself. HC evaluation is of particular interest in sick neonates, specially very low birth weight infants, regardless of whether they are normal or small for gestational age, and both during admission an during the first months of life. In these patients, HC catch-up within the first months of life represents a favorable neurodevelopmental prognostic factor. HC measuring and head growth evaluation constitute the most simple, inexpensive and quick available tools to assess the development of the central nervous system and identify neonates at risk of neurodevelopmental disorders.Revista de neurologia 01/2004; 39(6):548-54. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether head circumference (HC) catch-up is associated with improved neurocognitive development. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 179 preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) (BW≤1500 g) infants. The infants were born in 2000-2002 and were followed to the age of 5.5 years. The association between HC catch-up and neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed and perinatal risk factors, infant characteristics and nutritional practices associated with HC catch-up were determined. HC catch-up occurred in 59 (34%) infants and was positively correlated with neurodevelopmental outcome. The likelihood of HC catch-up increased with increasing birth weight and gestational age. HC catch-up occurred more often with breast milk feeding during hospitalization and with supplemental formula feeding at discharge, but decreased in prevalence with longer duration of breastfeeding after discharge. HC catch-up was more likely to occur in first-born infants and in families with high socioeconomic status. Most HC catch-up occurred between birth and three months corrected age. Among preterm-VLBW infants, there is a close relation between HC growth and neurodevelopmental outcome. Efforts to improve neurocognitive outcomes should focus on factors associated with HC catch-up.Journal of Perinatal Medicine 07/2011; 39(5):579-86. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the growth pattern of extremely low birth weight infants(ELBW) from birth to 24 months of adjusted gestational age (AA), the influence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and risk factors associated to growth failure. METHODS: This cohort study included all singleton inborn infants with birthweight <1,000g, admitted in the follow-up clinic of a level III Perinatal Center. Weight, length and head circumference were measured at birth, 40 weeks, and 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 months AA, and Z-scores were calculated. Out of the 82 survivors, 70 were studied and classified in two groups: BPD (n=41) and no-BPD (n=29). Statistical analysis included t-test or Mann-Withney, chi-square or Fisher Exact test, and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: In both groups, weight z-score decreased significantly between birth and 40 weeks AA. A peak incremental change in weight, length and head circumference z-scores occurred between 40 weeks and three months. Z-scores for the no-BPD group were close to the expected values by the age of six months and remained at these levels at 24 months AA. Children with BPD had lower z-scores for weight and head circumference in the first year of life, but no difference was found between BPD and no-BPD children in the second year of life. Regression analysis showed that catch-down in weight z-score at 40 weeks was a risk factor for failure to thrive. CONCLUSIONS: ELBW infants experienced early catch-up growth during the first two years of life. ELBW with BPD had poor weight gain. Post-natal growth restriction predicts failure to thrive in infancy.Revista Paulista de Pediatria 06/2007; 25(2):142-149.