Catch-up growth of head circumference of very low birth weight, small for gestational age preterm infants and mental development to adulthood.
ABSTRACT To examine the influence of postnatal energy quotient (EQ, energy intake/kg body weight per day) on head circumference (HC) growth and mental development of very low birth weight (VLBW), small for gestational age (SGA, <10th percentile) preterm infants.
SGA VLBW preterm infants (n = 46) with primarily symmetric intrauterine growth restriction were compared with 62 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) VLBW preterm infants and 73 term infants from the Bonn Longitudinal study.
Twenty-seven of 46 (59%) of the SGA preterm infants showed complete HC catch-up growth by the age of 12 months, but mostly before 6 months after term (HC catch-up group). These infants had significantly higher mean EQs from day 2 to 10 than the group of 19 infants without HC catch-up (EQ, 95 vs 78). Mean EQs correlated significantly with developmental and intelligence quotients (DQ/IQ) from 18 months to 6 years. As adults, the HC of the HC catch-up group was not significantly different from that of the AGA preterm infants, the term infants, and their parents. The group without HC catch-up had smaller HC as adults.
Our data suggest that early postnatal high-energy nutrient intake for SGA preterm infants is needed to promote HC catch-up growth and to prevent negative consequences of undernutrition.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the growth pattern of extremely low birth weight infants(ELBW) from birth to 24 months of adjusted gestational age (AA), the influence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and risk factors associated to growth failure. METHODS: This cohort study included all singleton inborn infants with birthweight <1,000g, admitted in the follow-up clinic of a level III Perinatal Center. Weight, length and head circumference were measured at birth, 40 weeks, and 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 months AA, and Z-scores were calculated. Out of the 82 survivors, 70 were studied and classified in two groups: BPD (n=41) and no-BPD (n=29). Statistical analysis included t-test or Mann-Withney, chi-square or Fisher Exact test, and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: In both groups, weight z-score decreased significantly between birth and 40 weeks AA. A peak incremental change in weight, length and head circumference z-scores occurred between 40 weeks and three months. Z-scores for the no-BPD group were close to the expected values by the age of six months and remained at these levels at 24 months AA. Children with BPD had lower z-scores for weight and head circumference in the first year of life, but no difference was found between BPD and no-BPD children in the second year of life. Regression analysis showed that catch-down in weight z-score at 40 weeks was a risk factor for failure to thrive. CONCLUSIONS: ELBW infants experienced early catch-up growth during the first two years of life. ELBW with BPD had poor weight gain. Post-natal growth restriction predicts failure to thrive in infancy.Revista Paulista de Pediatria 06/2007; 25(2):142-149.
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ABSTRACT: It is increasingly appreciated that perinatal events can set an organism on a life-long trajectory for either health or disease, resilience or risk. One early life variable that has proven critical for optimal development is the nutritional environment in which the organism develops. Extensive research has documented the effects of both undernutrition and overnutrition, with strong links evident for an increased risk for obesity and metabolic disorders, as well as adverse mental health outcomes. Recent work has highlighted a critical role of the immune system, in linking diet with long term health and behavioral outcomes. The present review will summarize the recent literature regarding the interactions of diet, immunity, and behavior.KeywordsDietNutritionImmuneInflammationMicrogliaCytokineIL-18ObesityCalorie restrictionLipopolysaccharideAbbreviationsACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormoneARC, arcuate nucleusBDNF, brain derived neurotropic factorBMI, body mass indexCR, calorie restrictionCRH, corticotropin-releasing hormoneGR, glucocorticoid receptorHPA axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axisIF, intermittent fastingIκB, inhibitory factor κBIL, interleukinIba1, ionized calcium-binding adapter moleculeLPS, lipopolysaccharideNHP, non-human primateNFκB, nuclear factor κBPVN, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamuspoly I:C, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acidPOMC, pro-opiomelanocortinTLR, toll-like receptorWT, wild typeNeuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 12/2014; · 10.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine whether faster growth from birth to term (40 postmenstrual weeks) and during the first year thereafter was associated with better neurocognitive abilities in adults born preterm with very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g).Journal of Pediatrics 09/2014; · 3.74 Impact Factor