To examine the influence of postnatal energy quotient (EQ, energy intake/kg body weight per day) on head circumference (HC) growth and mental development of very low birth weight (VLBW), small for gestational age (SGA, <10th percentile) preterm infants.
SGA VLBW preterm infants (n = 46) with primarily symmetric intrauterine growth restriction were compared with 62 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) VLBW preterm infants and 73 term infants from the Bonn Longitudinal study.
Twenty-seven of 46 (59%) of the SGA preterm infants showed complete HC catch-up growth by the age of 12 months, but mostly before 6 months after term (HC catch-up group). These infants had significantly higher mean EQs from day 2 to 10 than the group of 19 infants without HC catch-up (EQ, 95 vs 78). Mean EQs correlated significantly with developmental and intelligence quotients (DQ/IQ) from 18 months to 6 years. As adults, the HC of the HC catch-up group was not significantly different from that of the AGA preterm infants, the term infants, and their parents. The group without HC catch-up had smaller HC as adults.
Our data suggest that early postnatal high-energy nutrient intake for SGA preterm infants is needed to promote HC catch-up growth and to prevent negative consequences of undernutrition.
"Features of MS classically associated with IUGR are insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia , impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes (DM2); but, very recently, also nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been included among the persistent IUGR-dependent metabolic dysfunctions  . Furthermore, on the basis of numerous pieces of evidences demonstrating that early improvement in growth appears beneficial for a number of important outcomes, the personnel of neonatal follow-up clinics are encouraged to promote early catch-up growth for SGA subjects . However, from 2003, several controversial studies have forwarded the hypothesis that restricting postnatal catchup after prematurity could prevent later metabolic abnormalities . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), the most important cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity, is defined as a foetal growth less than normal for the population, often used as synonym of small for gestational age (SGA). Studies demonstrated the relationships between metabolic syndrome (MS) and birthweight. This study suggested that, in children, adolescents, and adults born SGA, insulin resistance could lead to other metabolic disorders: type 2 diabetes (DM2), dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD may evolve to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and it is related to the development of MS. Lifestyle intervention, physical activity, and weight reduction represent the mainstay of NAFLD therapy. In particular, a catch-up growth reduction could decrease the risk to develop MS and NAFLD.
In this paper, we outline clinical and experimental evidences of the association between IUGR, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and NAFLD and discuss on a possible management to avoid the risk of MS in adulthood.
International Journal of Endocrinology 11/2011; 2011(2):269853. DOI:10.1155/2011/269853 · 1.95 Impact Factor
"The clinical impression is that VLBW children are often under weight and shorter than expected even when corrected for gestational age    . There are some studies that evaluated effect of birth weight on growth of children and most of them have reported that birth weight is a significant marker on delayed growth and short stature     . Socioeconomic state (SES) is a concept devised to measure some aspects of education, occupation, and social prestige of a person or a social group . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Socioeconomic status and birth weight are prominent factors for future growing of children. Also Studies show that this criterion is associated with reduced cognitive outcomes, school achievement, and adult work capacity. So in this paper we determined the effects of some socio-economic statuses and birth weight on physical growth of children in Mashhad, Iran. Method and materials. This is a cross sectional study that determined effect of socio-economic status and birth weight on weight, heighting and BMI of school age children. Healthy six years old children who were screened before enter, to school were eligible for participating in our study between 6 June 2006 and 31 July. Weight and standing height were documented at birth and measured at 6 years old. Then, their BMI were calculated in childhood period. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software. Result. Results show that some socio-economic variables and birth weight is associated with and, perhaps, influence the variation of growth in the children. The variables which show the most consistent and significant association were birth weight, sex, economic status and education of parents. Conclusion. In this paper, we found that birth weight, economic status and education parents of neonates have directly significant effect on growth childhood period. We recommended that paying attention to these criteria for improving growth of children in our society should be considered by authorities.
International Journal of Pediatrics 06/2010; 2010:705382. DOI:10.1155/2010/705382
"The effects of nutrition on cognitive development suggest that nutritional factors have an impact on organizational events of brain maturation ( Brandt et al . , 2003 ) . High energy intake is correlated with catch - up growth of head circumference , and is associated with increased developmental and intelli - gence quotients ( Frisk et al . , 2002 ) . An association between cortical development and cognitive function is suggested also in our study since IQ est correlated with cortical surface area a"
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infants with low birth weight are at increased risk of perinatal brain injury. Disruption of normal cortical development may have consequences for later motor, behavioural and cognitive development. The aim of this study was to measure cerebral cortical thickness, area and volume with an automated MRI technique in 15-year-old adolescents who had low birth weight. Cerebral MRI for morphometric analysis was performed on 50 very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight </=1500 g), 49 term small for gestational age births (SGA, birth weight <10th percentile at term) and 58 control adolescents. A novel method of cortical surface models yielded measurements of cortical thickness and area for each subject's entire brain and computed cross-subject statistics based on cortical anatomy. The cortical surface models demonstrated regional thinning of the parietal, temporal and occipital lobes in the VLBW group, whereas regional thickening was demonstrated in the frontal and occipital lobes. The areas of change were greatest in those with the shortest gestational age at birth and lowest birth weight. Cortical surface area and cortical volume were lower in the VLBW than in the Control group. Within the VLBW group, there was an association between surface area and estimation of the intelligence quotient IQ (IQ(est)) and between cortical volume and IQ(est). Furthermore, cortical grey matter as a proportion of brain volume was significantly lower in the VLBW, but not in the SGA group compared with Controls. This observed reorganization of the developing brain offers a unique opportunity to investigate any relationship between changes in cortical anatomy and cognitive and social impairments, and the increase in psychiatric disorders that have been found in VLBW children and adolescents.
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