Magnetic resonance imaging findings in infantile spasms: etiologic and pathophysiologic aspects.
ABSTRACT An etiologic evaluation of 86 patients with infantile spasms is presented and the place of cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings within this spectrum is discussed. A total of 103 cranial MRIs, performed between 4 and 72 months of age, were analyzed and classified according to the etiologic and pathophysiologic aspects. Ninety-one percent of cases were diagnosed as symptomatic infantile spasms, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy was the primary cause (30%). The most common involvement was thinning of the corpus callosum in 43 patients (50%), followed by dilation of cerebral ventricles in 32 (36%), delayed myelination in 23 (26.7%), lesions of diencephalic deep gray matter in 17 (19.7%), and enlargement of the subarachnoid space in 12 (14%). Thin corpus callosum and diffuse atrophy were changes mainly associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, whereas delayed myelination seemed to be independent from a specific etiology. The results showed that cranial MRI may provide considerable information regarding not only the etiology but also the pathophysiology of infantile spasms.
Article: Infantile spasms is associated with deletion of the MAGI2 gene on chromosome 7q11.23-q21.11.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Infantile spasms (IS) is the most severe and common form of epilepsy occurring in the first year of life. At least half of IS cases are idiopathic in origin, with others presumed to arise because of brain insult or malformation. Here, we identify a locus for IS by high-resolution mapping of 7q11.23-q21.1 interstitial deletions in patients. The breakpoints delineate a 500 kb interval within the MAGI2 gene (1.4 Mb in size) that is hemizygously disrupted in 15 of 16 participants with IS or childhood epilepsy, but remains intact in 11 of 12 participants with no seizure history. MAGI2 encodes the synaptic scaffolding protein membrane-associated guanylate kinase inverted-2 that interacts with Stargazin, a protein also associated with epilepsy in the stargazer mouse.The American Journal of Human Genetics 08/2008; 83(1):106-11. · 10.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Clinical and experimental data suggest that stress contributes to the pathology of epilepsy. We review mechanisms by which stress, primarily via stress hormones, may exacerbate epilepsy, focusing on the intersection between stress-induced pathways and the progression of pathological events that occur before, during, and after the onset of epileptogenesis. In addition to this temporal nuance, we discuss other complexities in stress-epilepsy interactions, including the role of blood-brain barrier dysfunction, neuron-glia interactions, and inflammatory/cytokine pathways that may be protective or damaging depending on context. We advocate the use of global analytical tools, such as microarray, in support of a shift away from a narrow focus on seizures and towards profiling the complex, early process of epileptogenesis, in which multiple pathways may interact to dictate the ultimate onset of chronic, recurring seizures.Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology 01/2011; 2011:461263.