The copper intrauterine device (IUD) is a highly effective method of contraception that requires the dissolution of the copper into uterine cavity. However, there is little information about the amount and form of copper in the fluid and whether the presence of this element produces any change in the protein concentration.
Twenty-seven women were divided into three groups that had used IUD for about 6 months, 1 year and > or =3 years. The samples were collected during the proliferative phase (Pp), secretory phase (Sp) and menstruation (M). Square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV), cyclic voltammetry (CV), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) were used in this study.
Total copper concentrations were between 3.9 and 19.1 micro g/ml. The mean and standard deviations were as follows: 6 months, 11.4+/-4.7 micro g/ml of copper; 1 year, 11.5+/-7.0 micro g/ml of copper; and 3 years, 6.2+/-1.5 micro g/ml of copper. Total proteins were quantified by measuring the area under the chromatographic peaks. The mean areas obtained with uterine fluid samples from women who used IUDs for 6 months, 1 year and 3 years were 290,013, 538,934 and 201,863 arbitrary units (AU), respectively. The control sample was only 22323.
The amount of copper released from IUD, although high, is in the form of complexes with proteins. IUDs have a constant copper release for at least 6-12 months. Copper(I) was not detected in the fluid. Copper induces a change in the total protein concentration. The amount of copper released and the amount of proteins is slightly larger during the menstrual stage.
"The contraceptive effect of the Cu-IUD is mainly dependent on the copper ions released by the corrosion of copper;35–39 the larger the release rate of cupric ions, the better the contraceptive effect. According to the literature, there is an extremely high corrosive rate during the first few months, known as a cupric ion “burst release” after Cu-IUD insertion.8 However, overexposure could produce a wide spectrum of effects on surrounding cells and may exert significant in situ adverse effects. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A copper/low-density polyethylene nanocomposite (nano-Cu/LDPE), a potential intrauterine device component material, has been developed from our research. A logical extension of our previous work, this study was conducted to investigate the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), substance P (SP), and substance P receptor (SP-R) in the endometrium of Sprague Dawley rats, New Zealand White rabbits, and Macaca mulatta implanted with nano-Cu/LDPE composite. The influence of the nano-Cu/LDPE composite on the morphology of the endometrium was also investigated. Animals were randomly divided into five groups: the sham-operated control group (SO group), bulk copper group (Cu group), LDPE group, and nano-Cu/LDPE groups I and II. An expression of PAI-1, SP, and SP-R in the endometrial tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry at day 30, 60, 90, and 180 postimplantation. The significant difference for PAI-1, SP, and SP-R between the nano-Cu/LDPE groups and the SO group (P<0.05) was identified when the observation period was terminated, and the changes of nano-Cu/LDPE on these parameters were less remarkable than those of the Cu group (P<0.05). The damage to the endometrial morphology caused by the nano-Cu/LDPE composite was much less than that caused by bulk copper. The nano-Cu/LDPE composite might be a potential substitute for conventional materials for intrauterine devices in the future because of its decreased adverse effects on the endometrial microenvironment.
International Journal of Nanomedicine 02/2014; 9(1):1127-38. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S56756 · 4.38 Impact Factor
"In this sense, during insertion Cu-IUD probably represents a dangerous combination of variables since the metallic device is in intimate proximity with local tissue for a long period and a high amount of Cu ions is released, particularly in the first period after insertion (burst release). In fact, cellular and biochemical changes occurring in the endometrium and uterine fluid after Cu-IUD insertion  , as well as inflammatory response enhancement by cupric ions together with an increase of Cu ions in plasma, were reported   . On the other hand, it is worth mentioning that several hundreds of Cu alloys are also employed in odontology for prosthodontic restorations . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some specific clinical problems, particularly those related to orthopedic trauma and some cardiovascular diseases need only temporary support for healing. This support can be provided by biodegradable metallic materials such as, Fe-, Mg- based alloys that avoid some of the side effects of traditional biomaterials. They are expected to support the healing process of a diseased tissue or organ with slowly degrading after fulfilling their function. However, the excess of metal ions may catalyze the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). An increase in the intracellular levels of free metal ions affects the normal balance ROS-antioxidant. ROS could cause lipid peroxidation with changes in the composition and fluidity of cell membrane and alterations in other macromolecules as proteins and DNA. Considering that the concentration of metal ions can reach high values in the biomaterial-tissue interface inducing ROS generation it is important to evaluate the possible adverse effects of the degradation products of biodegradable biomaterials.
Reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, 01/2014: chapter Biodegradation of metallic biomaterials: its relation with the generation of reactive oxygen species: pages 127-140; Nova Science Publishers., ISBN: 978-1-63321-886-4
"Nevertheless, along its time the IUD is covered by cellular debris, corrosion products, microorganisms and exopolymeric substances (EPS) produced by their metabolism (Chesney, 1994; Marrie and Costerton, 1983; Jaques et al., 1986; Arancibia et al., 2003; Patai et al., 2004; de la Cruz et al., 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose - Colonies of Actynomyces israelii bacteria have been found in removed copper intra-uterine devices (IUD) used as a long-term contraceptive method. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the biofilm developed under anaerobic conditions by Actynomyces israelii on IUD surface, and its influence in the copper corrosion processes. Design/methodology/approach - The dissolution of copper on the intra-uterine cavity prevents conception because of the toxic effect of the ions released. Nevertheless, microbiological growths have been detected on the IUD devices retired after long periods of insertion. In order to know about the influence of the biofilm on the corrosion of copper, electrochemical, spectroscopic and surface analysis techniques were applied to study the phenomenon. Findings - A porous Actynomyces israelii biofilm was formed on the copper IUD surface. The bacteria colony had developed in an exopolimeric substrate, which protects it from the toxic effect of copper ions. The corrosion process was not inhibited by the biofilm, due to the pores present which permit the transport of species through them. Practical implications - The results of this study show that there is no decay in the contraceptive function of the IUDs due to the presence of a bacterial biofilm on its surface. Originality/value - The relationship between microbial colonization and the corrosion process of copper IUD under anaerobic conditions was characterized. These results will complement previous investigations performed on the study of corrosion of copper IUDs under different conditions.
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