Characterization of copper in uterine fluids of patients who use the copper T-380A intrauterine device
ABSTRACT The copper intrauterine device (IUD) is a highly effective method of contraception that requires the dissolution of the copper into uterine cavity. However, there is little information about the amount and form of copper in the fluid and whether the presence of this element produces any change in the protein concentration.
Twenty-seven women were divided into three groups that had used IUD for about 6 months, 1 year and > or =3 years. The samples were collected during the proliferative phase (Pp), secretory phase (Sp) and menstruation (M). Square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV), cyclic voltammetry (CV), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) were used in this study.
Total copper concentrations were between 3.9 and 19.1 micro g/ml. The mean and standard deviations were as follows: 6 months, 11.4+/-4.7 micro g/ml of copper; 1 year, 11.5+/-7.0 micro g/ml of copper; and 3 years, 6.2+/-1.5 micro g/ml of copper. Total proteins were quantified by measuring the area under the chromatographic peaks. The mean areas obtained with uterine fluid samples from women who used IUDs for 6 months, 1 year and 3 years were 290,013, 538,934 and 201,863 arbitrary units (AU), respectively. The control sample was only 22323.
The amount of copper released from IUD, although high, is in the form of complexes with proteins. IUDs have a constant copper release for at least 6-12 months. Copper(I) was not detected in the fluid. Copper induces a change in the total protein concentration. The amount of copper released and the amount of proteins is slightly larger during the menstrual stage.
SourceAvailable from: Natalia Soledad Fagali[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Some specific clinical problems, particularly those related to orthopedic trauma and some cardiovascular diseases need only temporary support for healing. This support can be provided by biodegradable metallic materials such as, Fe-, Mg- based alloys that avoid some of the side effects of traditional biomaterials. They are expected to support the healing process of a diseased tissue or organ with slowly degrading after fulfilling their function. However, the excess of metal ions may catalyze the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). An increase in the intracellular levels of free metal ions affects the normal balance ROS-antioxidant. ROS could cause lipid peroxidation with changes in the composition and fluidity of cell membrane and alterations in other macromolecules as proteins and DNA. Considering that the concentration of metal ions can reach high values in the biomaterial-tissue interface inducing ROS generation it is important to evaluate the possible adverse effects of the degradation products of biodegradable biomaterials.Reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, 01/2014: chapter Biodegradation of metallic biomaterials: its relation with the generation of reactive oxygen species: pages 127-140; Nova Science Publishers., ISBN: 978-1-63321-886-4
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ABSTRACT: In the nervous system, ROS have been implicated in several physiological and pathological events. It has been suggested that the members of the family of the NADPH-oxidases (NOX) could be a source of ROS involved in many of these processes. In hippocampus, ROS produced by NOX are required for the NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP), thereby regulating hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory formation. In developing neurons, ROS regulate the dynamics of the axonal growth cone during the establishment of neuronal networks and, in neurons from Aplysia, ROS produced by NOX promote axonal growth. In addition, ROS produced by NOX critically influence the neuronal proliferation and neurogenesis and they have been implicated in the progression of the programmed cell death of neurons during cerebellar development. Most of the physiological and pathological actions of ROS are mediated by modification of the redox state of several proteins. The oxidation of these proteins occurs in specific amino acid residues such as cysteine, tyrosine and tryptophan. In particular, the oxidation of cysteine residues is a major mechanism for the control of several protein. These molecules include channels, enzymes and proteins from the cytoskeleton. For example, in the striatum, the hydrogen peroxide modulates dopamine release by the oxidation of the ATP-sensitive K+ channels and, in dorsal root ganglion neurons, ROS induce the growth cone collapse by the oxidation of CRMP2. It has been proposed that ROS also alter the redox state of the proteins of the signaling pathways. For example, ROS produced in response to growth factors control the proliferation and neurogenesis of neural precursor cells through the redox regulation of PI3K/Akt pathway. On the other hand, the oxidation of thioredoxins (Trx) and glutaredoxins (Grx1) leads to their dissociation from ASK1 that dephosphorylates and promotes its activation and the consequent stimulation of JNK and p38, which are involved in several physiological processes such as apoptosis. Other proteins such as thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) negatively regulates Trx1 and controls the cellular redox state. Finally, Akt has also been reported to be inactivated by direct oxidation, but it can also be activated by the oxidation of PTEN. In this chapter, we review the experimental evidences supporting a role for ROS in cell signaling in the nervous system and we discuss the interactions of ROS with several proteins as part of the mechanisms that regulates neuronal physiology.Reactive Oxygen Species, Lipid Peroxidation and Protein Oxidation, Edited by Angel Catalá, 09/2014: chapter Role of Reactive Oxygen Species As Signaling Molecules in the Regulation of Physiological Processes of the Nervous System: pages 169-204; Nova Science Publishers., ISBN: 978-1-63321-886-4
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ABSTRACT: A copper/low-density polyethylene nanocomposite (nano-Cu/LDPE), a potential intrauterine device component material, has been developed from our research. A logical extension of our previous work, this study was conducted to investigate the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), substance P (SP), and substance P receptor (SP-R) in the endometrium of Sprague Dawley rats, New Zealand White rabbits, and Macaca mulatta implanted with nano-Cu/LDPE composite. The influence of the nano-Cu/LDPE composite on the morphology of the endometrium was also investigated. Animals were randomly divided into five groups: the sham-operated control group (SO group), bulk copper group (Cu group), LDPE group, and nano-Cu/LDPE groups I and II. An expression of PAI-1, SP, and SP-R in the endometrial tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry at day 30, 60, 90, and 180 postimplantation. The significant difference for PAI-1, SP, and SP-R between the nano-Cu/LDPE groups and the SO group (P<0.05) was identified when the observation period was terminated, and the changes of nano-Cu/LDPE on these parameters were less remarkable than those of the Cu group (P<0.05). The damage to the endometrial morphology caused by the nano-Cu/LDPE composite was much less than that caused by bulk copper. The nano-Cu/LDPE composite might be a potential substitute for conventional materials for intrauterine devices in the future because of its decreased adverse effects on the endometrial microenvironment.International Journal of Nanomedicine 02/2014; 9:1127-38. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S56756 · 4.20 Impact Factor