Intrasphenoidal encephalocele associated with cerebrospinal fluid fistula and subdural hematomas: technical case report.
ABSTRACT Intrasphenoidal encephalocele is a rare clinical entity that is often complicated by rhinorrhea, recurrent meningitis, and headache, but in no case has the association of rhinorrhea with subdural hematomas been described. A surgical procedure to stop persistent cerebrospinal fluid leakage is reported.
A 59-year-old man sought care for intractable rhinoliquorrhea of 6 months' duration. Cranial computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a basal posterior frontal bony defect and an evocative image suggesting intrasphenoidal encephalocele.
A transnasal transsphenoidal surgical procedure was performed; the encephalocele was removed, and the sphenoid sinus was filled with an inflatable pouch made of synthetic dura mater containing abdominal fat. Postoperative reduction of the rhinoliquorrhea, but not its total disappearance, was observed. Total disappearance was achieved only after endonasal, transmucosal inflation of the pouch with human fibrin glue. One of the subdural hematomas disappeared spontaneously, and the other was treated by a surgical procedure.
The possible role of the presented technique in the treatment of cerebrospinal fluid leakage is discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Basal encephaloceles are rare clinical entities. Intrasphenoidal encephalocele (ISE) is a rare form of basal encephalocele. The clinical presentation is often subtle and may remain undetected. Only a limited number of cases of ISE have been reported, mostly in middle-aged patients who presented with symptoms. Clinical diagnosis and management remain a challenge. Our case reports ISE as an incidental finding in a very elderly male patient. We present a case of ISE discovered as an incidental finding in a 99-year-old male who presented to the emergency department (ED) after a fall from bed. The encephalocele was discovered in the evaluation of the computed tomography (CT) scan of the head. This is an incidental manifestation of a rare disease. It demonstrates that these encephaloceles may not manifest clinically or symptomatically as other reports have suggested.International Journal of Emergency Medicine 12/2013; 6(1):45.
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ABSTRACT: Anterior skull base defects with encephalocele in adults are quite rare and can be a cause of spontaneous rhinoliquorrhea; however, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula can be not rarely misdiagnosed for several months or years. Five adult patients affected by ethmoidal encephalocele with CSF fistula were treated in our institute from 2006 through to 2011. Onset of clinical history was represented by rhinoliquorrhea, which was precociously recognized in only 1 patient; in the other 4, it was misdiagnosed for a period ranging from 11 months to 5 years. After clinical diagnosis of CSF fistula and after brain magnetic resonance imaging, ethmoidal encephalocele was evident in all patients; preoperative study was completed by spiral computed tomography scan, to clearly identify the skull base bone defect. All patients were operated on by transsphenoidal endonasal endoscope-assisted microsurgical approach through 1 nostril. The herniated brain was coagulated and removed, and reconstruction of cranial base was performed. Postoperative rhinoliquorrhea or other complications did not occur in any patient at short and late follow-up. All patients were discharged after a few days. Endonasal endoscope-assisted microsurgical approach was effective in exposing and repairing the ethmoidal bone defect; tridimensional vision and wide lateral and superior exposition of the operative field were possible in each patient, thanks to the use of microscope and angulated endoscope.The Journal of craniofacial surgery 02/2014; · 0.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background The occurrence of cerebrospinal fluid fistulas of the frontal sinus after anterior skull base surgery is not rare. The extracerebral techniques to repair cerebrospinal fluid fistulas are often used, especially because they avoid open-air surgical operations.Surgical Neurology 10/2005; 64(4):351-353. · 1.67 Impact Factor