Comparison of acute changes in left ventricular volume, systolic and diastolic functions, and intraventricular synchronicity after biventricular and right ventricular pacing for heart failure.
ABSTRACT Biventricular pacing (BiV) therapy has recently been shown to improve systolic function and cause reverse remodeling in patients with advanced heart failure with electromechanical delay. In these patients, the benefit of right ventricular (RV)-based pacing was controversial. We compared the acute changes in systolic and diastolic function, left ventricular (LV) volume, and intraventricular synchronicity in BiV pacing, RV pacing, and without pacing (No) by means of echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI).
TDI was performed in 33 patients with heart failure after undergoing pacemaker implantation, when the device was randomized to BiV, RV, and no pacing modes.
Systolic function was only improved during BiV pacing, but not during RV pacing. This included ejection fraction (No vs RV vs BiV = 24% +/- 12% vs 25% +/- 10% vs 30% +/- 14%, P =.02 vs No), +dp/dt (P =.01), myocardial performance index (P =.01), and isovolumic contraction time (P =.03). Mitral regurgitation was only reduced during BiV pacing (P =.02). LV early diastolic function was depressed in both RV and BiV pacing, as detected by transmitral flow (97 +/- 34 vs 80 +/- 34 vs 82 +/- 32 cm/s, both P < or =.005) and TDI (mean myocardial early diastolic velocity of 6 basal segments, 3.3 +/- 1.7 vs 2.6 +/- 1.0 vs 2.6 +/- 1.0 cm/s, both P =.01). The LV end-diastolic (187 +/- 86 vs 177 +/- 84 vs 166 +/- 79, P =.003) and end-systolic (146 +/- 77 vs 138 +/- 79 vs 122 +/- 69, P =.003) volumes were only decreased during BiV pacing. For systolic synchronicity, a significant delay in peak systolic contraction in the lateral over the septal wall (171 +/- 37 vs 217 +/- 46 ms, P =.004) was revealed by TDI when there was no pacing. This was abolished by BiV pacing, in which septal contraction was delayed (195 +/- 38 vs 201 +/- 53 ms, P = not significant). However, RV pacing restored the lateral wall delay, and systolic asynchrony reappeared (190 +/- 40 vs 227 +/- 56 ms, P =.01). Diastolic asynchrony between the septal and lateral walls was not evident in these patients and was not affected by either pacing mode.
Only BiV pacing, but not RV pacing, improves systolic function, and reduces mitral regurgitation and LV volumes in patients with heart failure and electromechanical delay. This is attributed to the improvement of systolic synchronicity. Diastolic synchronicity was unaffected, whereas early diastolic function could be jeopardized, by either pacing mode.
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ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that pacing at two ventricular sites simultaneously would activate the myocardium more rapidly and improve ventricular function. We studied the effect of pacing at the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and the RV apex (RVA) on systolic and diastolic function. In 14 patients with a reduced systolic ejection fraction < 40% (mean EF 32% +/- 4%) we measured RV pressures, left ventricular pressures, EF, cardiac output, peak dP/dt, peak negative dP/dt, and the time constant of relaxation, Tau, during intrinsic rhythm, atrial pacing and DVI pacing at the RVA, the RVOT, and both RV sites combined in random order. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed no significant differences in any of these parameters. The highest absolute values of dP/dt were observed during sinus rhythm and the lowest with RVA pacing. This parameter tended to improve progressively with pacing in the RVOT and at both sites. Peak negative dP/dt showed a similar nonsignificant trend. Conclusion: These data suggest that in patients with poor LV function, there may be subtle improvements in diastolic and systolic function with pacing in the RVOT and at combined sites in the RV compared to traditional RVA pacing.Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 06/1998; 21(5):1077-84. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Atrial synchronous pacing with short, nonphysiological atrioventricular (AV) intervals has been reported to increase cardiac output in selected patients with severe dilated heart failure. The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect of atrial synchronous pacing with short AV intervals in a consecutive series of patients with dilated heart failure. Twelve patients with a mean ejection fraction of 21% +/- standard error 2.5% were studied. Pacing catheters were placed in the high right atrium and right ventricular apex and a balloon flotation catheter in the pulmonary artery for measurement of cardiac output. Simultaneous transthoracic echocardiography was performed for measurement of left ventricular filling time and mitral regurgitation. In a randomized crossover design, measurements were made during VDD pacing at programmed AV intervals of 100 and 60 msec and during a control period in sinus rhythm. Left ventricular filling time increased at AV intervals of 100 and 60 msec (mean difference 37 +/- 9 and 34 +/- 11 msec, respectively, both P < 0.01 compared to control). Despite increases in ventricular filling time, stroke, and cardiac index declined with short atrioventricular intervals (at an AV interval of 60 msec, stroke index fell by 2.1 +/- 0.5 mL/m2, P < 0.05 and cardiac index by 125 +/- 45 mL/m2; P = NS). Heart rate was unchanged at both AV intervals (78 +/- 4.9 at control, 78 +/- 5.2 at 100 msec and 79 +/- 4.9 beats/min at 60 msec; P = NS).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 05/1994; 17(5 Pt 1):959-65. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the potential acute benefit of multisite cardiac pacing with optimized atrioventricular synchrony and simultaneous biventricular pacing in patients with drug-refractory congestive heart failure (CHF).Background. Prognosis and quality of life in severe CHF are poor. Various nonpharmacological therapies have been evaluated but are restricted in their effectiveness and applications. In the early 1990s, dual chamber pacing (DDD) pacing was proposed as primary treatment of refractory CHF but results were controversial. Recently, tests to evaluate the effect of simultaneous pacing of both ventricles have elicited a significant improvement of cardiac performance.Methods. Acute hemodynamic study was conducted in 18 patients with severe CHF (New York Heart Association class III and IV) and major intraventricular conduction block (IVCB) (QRS duration = 170 ± 37 ms). Using a Swan-Ganz catheter, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) and cardiac index (CI) were measured in different pacing configurations: atrial pacing (AAI) mode, used as reference, single-site right ventricular DDD pacing and biventricular pacing with the right ventricular lead placed either at the apex or at the outflow tract.Results. The CI was significantly increased by biventricular pacing in comparison with AAI or right ventricular (RV). DDD pacing (2.7 ± 0.7 vs. 2 ± 0.5 and 2.4 ± 0.6 l/min/m2, p < 0.001). The PCWP also decreased significantly during biventricular pacing, compared with AAI (22 ± 8 vs. 27 ± 9 mm Hg; p < 0.001).Conclusions. This acute hemodynamic study demonstrated that biventricular DDD pacing may significantly improve cardiac performance in patients with IVCB and with severe heart failure, in comparison with intrinsic conduction and single-site RV DDD pacing.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 01/1999; · 14.09 Impact Factor