Phosphorylation of NF-kappa B by calmodulin-dependent kinase IV activates anti-apoptotic gene expression.
ABSTRACT We previously presented that calmodulin-dependent kinase IV (CaMKIV) mutually interacts with NF-kappa B and phosphorylates it directly, inducing the increased transcriptional regulation dependent on NF-kappa B target genes [J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 20005]. Here, we show that Ser(535) residue is phosphorylated by CaMKIV. S535A mutant of p65 was specifically defective in transactivation of NF-kappa B target gene expression induced by CaMKIV. While coexpression of active CaMKIV with wild-type p65 led to a recovery from etoposide-induced apoptosis and an increase of Bcl-2 protein in cells, cells expressing S535A mutant did not. Taken together these results suggest that phosphorylated NF-kappa B p65 on Ser(535) by CaMKIV increases NF-kappa B target gene expression, including anti-apoptotic gene, hence leading to inhibition of apoptosis.
SourceAvailable from: Bastian Hoesel[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The NF-kappaB family of transcription factors has an essential role in inflammation and innate immunity. Furthermore, NF-kappaB is increasingly recognized as a crucial player in many steps of cancer initiation and progression. During these latter processes NF-kappaB cooperates with multiple other signaling molecules and pathways. Prominent nodes of crosstalk are mediated by other transcription factors such as STAT3 and p53 or the ETS related gene ERG. These transcription factors either directly interact with NF-kappaB subunits or affect NF-kappaB target genes. Crosstalk can also occur through different kinases, such as GSK3-beta, p38, or PI3K, which modulate NF-kappaB transcriptional activity or affect upstream signaling pathways. Other classes of molecules that act as nodes of crosstalk are reactive oxygen species and miRNAs. In this review, we provide an overview of the most relevant modes of crosstalk and cooperativity between NF-kappaB and other signaling molecules during inflammation and cancer.Molecular Cancer 08/2013; 12(1):86. DOI:10.1186/1476-4598-12-86 · 5.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The accumulation of amyloid-β-containing neuritic plaques and intracellular tau protein tangles are key histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This type of pathology clearly indicates that the mechanisms of neuronal housekeeping and protein quality control are compromised in AD. There is mounting evidence that the autophagosome-lysosomal degradation is impaired, which could disturb the processing of APP and provoke AD pathology. Beclin 1 is a molecular platform assembling an interactome with stimulating and suppressive components which regulate the initiation of the autophagosome formation. Recent studies have indicated that the expression Beclin 1 is reduced in AD brain. Moreover, the deficiency of Beclin 1 in cultured neurons and transgenic mice provokes the deposition of amyloid-β peptides whereas its overexpression reduces the accumulation of amyloid-β. There are several potential mechanisms, which could inhibit the function of Beclin 1 interactome and thus impair autophagy and promote AD pathology. The mechanisms include (i) reduction of Beclin 1 expression or its increased proteolytic cleavage by caspases, (ii) sequestration of Beclin 1 to non-functional locations, such as tau tangles, (iii) formation of inhibitory complexes between Beclin 1 and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins or inflammasomes, (iv) interaction of Beclin 1 with inhibitory neurovirulent proteins, e.g. herpex simplex ICP34.5, or (v) inhibition of the Beclin 1/Vps34 complex through the activation of CDK1 and CDK5. We will shortly introduce the function of Beclin 1 interactome in autophagy and phagocytosis, review the recent evidence indicating that Beclin 1 regulates autophagy and APP processing in AD, and finally examine the potential mechanisms through which Beclin 1 dysfunction could be involved in the pathogenesis of AD.Progress in Neurobiology 07/2013; 106-107. DOI:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2013.06.002 · 10.30 Impact Factor