Investigation of solvent effects for the Claisen rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate: mechanistic interpretation via near attack conformations.
ABSTRACT Solvent effects on the rate of the Claisen rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate have been examined in water and methanol. The preequilibrium free-energy differences between diaxial and diequatorial conformers of chorismate, which had previously been implicated as the sole basis for the observed 100-fold rate increase in water over methanol, have been reframed using the near attack conformation (NAC) concept of Bruice and co-workers. Using a combined QM/MM Monte Carlo/free-energy perturbation (MC/FEP) method, 82%, 57%, and 1% of chorismate conformers were found to be NAC structures (NACs) in water, methanol, and the gas phase, respectively. As a consequence, the conversion of non-NACs to NACs provides no free-energy contributions to the overall relative reaction rates in water versus methanol. Free-energy perturbation calculations yielded differences in free energies of activation for the two polar protic solvents and the gas phase. The rate enhancement in water over the gas phase arises from preferential hydration of the transition state (TS) relative to the reactants via increased hydrogen bonding and long-range electrostatic interactions, which accompany bringing the two negatively charged carboxylates into closer proximity. More specifically, there is an increase of 1.3 and 0.6 hydrogen bonds to the carboxylate groups and the ether oxygen, respectively, in going from the reactant to the TS in water. In methanol, the corresponding changes in hydrogen bonding with first shell solvent molecules are small; the rate enhancement arises primarily from the enhanced long-range interactions with solvent molecules. Thus, the reaction occurs faster in water than in methanol due to greater stabilization of the TS in water by specific interactions with first shell solvent molecules.
- SourceAvailable from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A series of enzymes for Kemp elimination of 5-nitrobenzisoxazole has been recently designed and tested. In conjunction with the design process, extensive computational analyses were carried out to evaluate the potential performance of four of the designs, as presented here. The enzyme-catalyzed reactions were modeled using mixed quantum and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations in the context of Monte Carlo (MC) statistical mechanics simulations. Free-energy perturbation (FEP) calculations were used to characterize the free-energy surfaces for the catalyzed reactions as well as for reference processes in water. The simulations yielded detailed information about the catalytic mechanisms, activation barriers, and structural evolution of the active sites over the course of the reactions. The catalytic mechanism for the designed enzymes KE07, KE10(V131N), and KE15 was found to be concerted with proton transfer, generally more advanced in the transition state than breaking of the isoxazolyl N-O bond. On the basis of the free-energy results, all three enzymes were anticipated to be active. Ideas for further improvement of the enzyme designs also emerged. On the technical side, the synergy of parallel QM/MM and experimental efforts in the design of artificial enzymes is well illustrated.Journal of the American Chemical Society 12/2008; 130(47):15907-15. · 10.68 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In enzymes, multiple structural effects cooperatively lead to the high catalytic activity, while individually these effects can be small. The design of artificial enzymes requires the understanding and ability to manipulate such subtle effects. The 34E4 catalytic antibody, catalyzing Kemp elimination of 5-nitrobenzisoxazole, and its Glu50Asp (E50D) variant are the subject of the present investigation. This removal of only a methylene group yields an approximately 30-fold reduction in the rate for the catalyzed Kemp elimination. Here, the aim is to understand this difference in the catalytic performance. The mechanism of Kemp elimination catalyzed by 34E4 and the E50D mutant is elucidated using QM/MM Monte Carlo simulations and free energy perturbation theory. In both proteins, the reaction is shown to follow a single-step, concerted mechanism. In the mutant, the activation barrier rises by 2.4 kcal/mol, which corresponds to a 62-fold rate deceleration, which is in good agreement with the experimental data. The positions and functionality of the residues in the active site are monitored throughout the reaction. It is concluded that the looser contact with the base, shorter base-Asn58 contact, less favorable pi-stacking with Trp91 in the transition state of the reaction, and different solvation pattern all contribute to the reduction of the reaction rate in the E50D variant of 34E4.The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 02/2009; 113(2):497-504. · 3.61 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The chorismate to prephenate enzyme catalyzed reaction has been used in this review as the conduit to show different theoretical approaches that have been used over the years in our laboratory to explain its molecular mechanism. This pericyclic reaction has the advantage that other protein scaffolds such as catalytic antibodies or some promiscuous enzymes present certain chorismate mutase activity. The obtained results on all these protein environments, by comparison with the uncatalyzed reaction in solution, have been used to propose, as a general conclusion, that the origin of enzyme catalysis is in the relative electrostatic stabilization of the transition state with respect to the Michaelis complex. This feature implies that reactants of catalyzed reaction were closer to the transition state than those of the non-catalyzed reaction. From this hypothesis, and considering the features of the wild type chorismate mutases as the optimal catalyst for the reaction, some mutations on both kinds of alternative proteins have been proposed which would presumably enhance the rate constant of the chemical step.The studies presented in this paper demonstrate that the improvements and developments of the methods and techniques of theoretical and computational chemistry are now mature enough to model physic-chemical properties of biological systems with good accuracy. The combination of a potent computational protocol with molecular engineering techniques can be a promising methodology to develop novel enzymes with new or more efficient catalytic functions.Interdisciplinary Sciences Computational Life Sciences 03/2010; 2(1):115-31.