Combined affinity and rate constant distributions of ligand populations from experimental surface binding kinetics and equilibria.
ABSTRACT The present article considers the influence of heterogeneity in a mobile analyte or in an immobilized ligand population on the surface binding kinetics and equilibrium isotherms. We describe strategies for solving the inverse problem of calculating two-dimensional distributions of rate and affinity constants from experimental data on surface binding kinetics, such as obtained from optical biosensors. Although the characterization of a heterogeneous population of analytes binding to uniform surface sites may be possible under suitable experimental conditions, computational difficulties currently limit this approach. In contrast, the case of uniform analytes binding to heterogeneous populations of surface sites is computationally feasible, and can be combined with Tikhonov-Phillips and maximum entropy regularization techniques that provide the simplest distribution that is consistent with the data. The properties of this ligand distribution analysis are explored with several experimental and simulated data sets. The resulting two-dimensional rate and affinity constant distributions can describe well experimental kinetic traces measured with optical biosensors. The use of kinetic surface binding data can give significantly higher resolution than affinity distributions from the binding isotherms alone. The shape and the level of detail of the calculated distributions depend on the experimental conditions, such as contact times and the concentration range of the analyte. Despite the flexibility introduced by considering surface site distributions, the impostor application of this model to surface binding data from transport limited binding processes or from analyte distributions can be identified by large residuals, if a sufficient range of analyte concentrations and contact times are used. The distribution analysis can provide a rational interpretation of complex experimental surface binding kinetics, and provides an analytical tool for probing the homogeneity of the populations of immobilized protein.
Article: Antigen-antibody binding and mass transport by convection and diffusion to a surface: a two-dimensional computer model of binding and dissociation kinetics.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The kinetics of binding and dissociation between a soluble analyte and an immobilized ligand on or near a surface are described numerically by an iterative computer model. The model is applied to a microflow chamber which is used for surface plasmon resonance measurements. It calculates diffusion perpendicular to the surface, flow parallel to the surface, and the interaction between any number of soluble and immobilized species. If the reaction between analyte and ligand is fast, binding and dissociation are influenced by the transport of the analyte to or away from the surface. In this case the measurement yields apparent association and dissociation rate constants which are not identical with the reaction rate of analyte and ligand. The transition between mass transport-controlled processes and reaction-controlled processes is described and attention is drawn to possible misinterpretations of experimental binding and dissociation curves. The measurement of rate constants higher than allowed by the conventional technique can be performed by elution of the analyte with a second analyte of low molecular weight.Analytical Biochemistry 09/1993; 213(1):152-61. · 3.00 Impact Factor
Article: Differences in promiscuity for antibody-FcRn interactions across species: implications for therapeutic antibodies[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Preclinical tests of therapeutic antibodies are frequently carried out in mice to evaluate pharmacokinetics and efficacy. However, the observation that mouse IgG are cleared rapidly from the human circulation suggests that mice may not always be an ideal model. The Fc receptor, FcRn, regulates the serum half-lives of IgG in mice and most likely has a similar function in humans. In the current study we have carried out an extensive analysis of the interaction of the human or mouse forms of FcRn with IgG from various species using surface plasmon resonance. We show that in contrast to mouse FcRn, human FcRn is surprisingly stringent in its binding specificity for IgG derived from different species. Human FcRn binds to human, rabbit and guinea pig IgG, but not significantly to rat, bovine, sheep or mouse IgG (with the exception of weak binding to mouse IgG2b). In contrast, mouse FcRn binds to all IgG analyzed. The lack of binding of human FcRn to mouse IgG1 has been confirmed using transfectants that have been engineered to express human FcRn on the cell surface. Our results provide a molecular explanation for the enigmatic observation that mouse IgG behave anomalously in humans. These studies have implications for the successful application of therapeutic antibodies.International Immunology 01/2002; · 3.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The voltage-gated potassium channel protein KvLQT1 (Wang et al., 1996. Nature Genet. 12:17-23) is believed to underlie the delayed rectifier potassium current of cardiac muscle together with the small membrane protein minK (also named IsK) as an essential auxiliary subunit (Barhanin et al., 1996. Nature. 384:78-80; Sanguinetti et al., 1996. Nature. 384:80-83) Using the Xenopus oocyte expression system, we analyzed in detail the gating characteristics of homomeric KvLQT1 channels and of heteromeric KvLQT1/minK channels using two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings. Activation of homomeric KvLQT1 at positive voltages is accompanied by an inactivation process that is revealed by a transient increase in conductance after membrane repolarization to negative values. We studied the recovery from inactivation and the deactivation of the channels during tail repolarizations at -120 mV after conditioning pulses of variable amplitude and duration. Most measurements were made in high extracellular potassium to increase the size of inward tail currents. However, experiments in normal low-potassium solutions showed that, in contrast to classical C-type inactivation, the inactivation of KvLQT1 is independent of extracellular potassium. At +40 mV inactivation develops with a delay of 100 ms. At the same potential, the activation estimated from the amplitude of the late exponential decay of the tail currents follows a less sigmoidal time course, with a late time constant of 300 ms. Inactivation of KvLQT1 is not complete, even at the most positive voltages. The delayed, voltage-dependent onset and the incompleteness of inactivation suggest a sequential gating scheme containing at least two open states and ending with an inactivating step that is voltage independent. In coexpression experiments of KvLQT1 with minK, inactivation seems to be largely absent, although biphasic tails are also observed that could be related to similar phenomena.Biophysical Journal 09/1998; 75(2):785-92. · 3.65 Impact Factor